The Nile Basin Countries are facing two major long-term and large-scale threats that can lead to the total collapse of the water resources in the whole Nile system, i.e. from the very sources at its origin “up-stream” to its final fate at the deltas “down-stream”. These major threats are related to climate change “global warming” and environmental degradation because of waste and pollution (from energy, industry, agriculture and household). To deal with these major threats, i.e. mitigation and solutions, the Nile Basin countries need to develop and implement sustainable management strategies/policies. In this context, achieving sustainable socio-economic developments in the Nile Basin region, which indeed applies also to the other parts of the MENA region, requires coupling public awareness, education, science and technology programs to society, population and markets needs.