Category: Water Resources

The global inventory of fresh surface water resources is about 0.3% of the total water available on the earth. The major part of these resources (87%) exists in lakes and only 2% flows in rivers while the remaining (11%) is trapped in swamps. The remainder of the global freshwater resources, which amounts to double the surface water resources (i.e. 0.6%), exists in icecaps and glaciers (67%), and groundwater (30%). The global inventory of fresh surface water is conservative, i.e. constant, as the earth is a closed system in this respect. However, the quality of fresh surface water on the earth’s surface has gone through, and still, gradual degradation by the increasing waste and pollution as a results of growing population, consumption of natural resources and industrialization as well as severe lack of regulations for protection of global water resources. Also, groundwater resources are facing tremendous threats both in terms of quantity and quality. Freshwater resources management is essential for achieving sustainable socio-economic developments through implementation of best water practices in all society sectors. Existing and emerging competition on freshwater resources on national, regional and global levels, and the diverse interests among stakeholders in public and private sectors, call for Water Framework Directive to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies including trans-boundary waters and marine water up to one nautical mile from shore. There are constant needs for developing treaties, conventions, regulations and agreements on all levels, sectors and consumers. This involves taking in consideration the nature of local, regional and global cycles and their interactions with climate, environment, humans and the techno-sphere. Management of water resources has to consider the complex interactions of water sectors, stakeholders and consumers with all other society sectors, in particular energy, agriculture, industry and household sectors. Among important issues for achieving sustainable socio-economic developments world over is affordability and accessibility of safe water resources for all society needs.

The Global Water Cycle, More Rain but Less Water, Why? – Impacts on the Nile Basin.

The global water cycle is undergoing continuous and major perturbation what regards for example spatio-temporal changes in intensity and frequency of extreme events of flooding and wet-dry periods of land. Our understanding about climate changes has improved enormously, through the advances in GCM ‘Global Climate Models’, e.g. the predictions of tipping points in the earth’s system and associated severe heatwaves due to increase in temperature from the continuous emissions of greenhouse gases. Yet our knowledge on the impacts of climate change on the water global cycle is still improving specially the uncertainties mentioned above which is important for developing a sustainable-resilient agro- and food production.

New research is indicating that heat-induced global water cycle changes pose significant challenges to global ecosystems, soil stability and desertification, agro-food industries and human society in general. Indeed, quantifying historical water cycle change though very important to understand and assess , it is difficult owing to shortage of direct observations. In particularly over the ocean, where major parts of global precipitation and evaporation occur in the world oceans. Researchers have found new tools to improve our knowledge about key parameters processes associated with changes in the global water cycle. Air–sea fluxes of freshwater imprint on ocean salinity such that mean salinity is lowest in the warmest and coldest parts of the ocean, and is highest at intermediate temperatures. These findings were used to track salinity trends in the warm, salty fraction of the ocean, and quantify the observed net poleward transport of freshwater in the Earth system from 1970 to 2014. It was found that poleward freshwater transport from warm to cold ocean regions has occurred at rates that is not replicated in the current generation of climate models. Should this be the case, the implication is that the historical surface flux amplification is weaker climate models compared to observations. The results establish historical constraint on the poleward freshwater transport that will assist in addressing biases in climate models (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04370-w) and thereby help us to better predict the behaviour and details in the global water cycle.

Climate change will therefore be intensifying the Earth’s water cycle at twice the predicted rates (https://amp.theguardian.com/environment/2022/feb/24/climate-change-is-intensifying-earths-water-cycle-at-twice-the-predicted-rate-research-shows; https://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/science-tech/global-warming-amplifying-our-water-cycle-and-its-happening-much-faster-we). Rising global temperatures and the increasing amount of heat have shifted at least twice the amount of freshwater from warm regions towards the Earth’s poles than previously thought as the water cycle intensifies, according published analysis in Nature. In the future there will be more rain but less water as this is shown from Climate projections suggesting that, by end of the century, the amount of rain for example in the Upper Nile basin could increase by up to 20%. A new paper by the same group, shows that, despite more rainfall, devastating hot and dry spells are projected to become more frequent in the Upper Nile basin (https://theconversation.com/in-the-future-there-will-be-more-rain-but-less-water-in-the-nile-basin-129360?utm_medium=ampemail&utm_ source=email).

These trends in the global water cycle demonstrate that ‘RENEWABLE SOIL TECHNOLOGIES’ need to take in consideration the impacts of climate change on agriculture and agro-industries by being directly dependent on the renewable water resources. The Nile in general – world’s longest river – runs through 11 countries in Africa and its basin covers about 3 million sq kms, i.e. about 10% of the continent’s landmass. A huge population, about 250 millions people, is dependent on the Nile in Ethiopia, Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. Almost all of the rainfall falls and feeds upstream countries of the Blue and White Nile – in the upper Nile (South Sudan, western Ethiopia and Uganda). While the lower Nile basin receives very little rainfall (Sudan and Egypt) and thereby depends heavily and directly on the Nile for water. Climate projections by the end of the 21-century, suggest that the rain in the Upper Nile basin could increase by up to 30%. However, despite more rainfall, the devastating hot and dry spells are projected to become more frequent in the Upper Nile basin.

Currently, about 10% of the basin’s population faces chronic shortages due to seasonal aridity and huge unequal access to water resources. The proportion of population that will face water scarcity will increase to 30% by 2040, i.e. more than 80 million people. These threats from hot and dry conditions will kill crops, reduce hydropower, diminish the water available for people and industry and heighten tensions over the distribution of regional water resources. By 2040, a hot and dry year could push over 45% of the people in the Nile Basin – nearly 110 million people – into water scarcity. In addition to this the population growth would drive water scarcity in the Upper Nile.

In conclusion, climate and population changes in the Nile Basin will project onto an already complex and tense socioeconomic and political landscape.

📢 Announcement: Virtual Symposium on “Creativity and Innovation for Sustainability. 21 April, 10 pm Cairo.

In the memory of the International Day for Creativity and Innovation, the “Arab Federation for Creativity and Innovation” rowadalaamal.com holds a Virtual Symposium on “Creativity and Innovation for Sustainability”. This Virtual Symposium is being held under the care of “Arab Federation for Sustainable Development and the Environment” www.ausde.org.

You are invited to join this Virtual Symposium by using the link given below. It will take place at 10pm Cairo time and 11pm Mecca time.

✅ برعاية الإتحاد العربي للتنمية المستدامة والبيئة
⭕ يعقدالمجلس العربي للإبداع والابتكار بمناسبةاليوم العالمي للإبداع والابتكارالمؤتمر الافتراضي
🤚بعنوان:الإبداع والابتكارمن أجل التنمية
🔹الخميس 21 / 4 /2022
⏳الساعة11مساءمكةالمكرمةو10القاهرة
📌الرابط:
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84163868686

The Dream of All Dreams – A Love Song in a Strange Land.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Merely a dream, a dream of all dreams. Day and night, year after year, generation after generation; we all have dreams. Peaceful dreams, dreams we all dream but always end with dreams for safe and prosper life. Dreams for peace, peace with cries and tears that turn fear and hopes to series of dreams. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Thoughts of trust, yes trust and not mistrust. Dreams to bring us together with respect and care, to get us away from division. Division of all of us; taking side, with or against. It is about us, us? but who is us? We and they become you and me; you against me and me against you, who are you? The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Dreams for peace, become dreams for war. The dream of understanding you becomes a dream of understanding me. Who are you? The dream of information becomes a dream of misinformation and what to do? The dream of helping becomes a dream of fighting, to get more and more, from you and me. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Energy, is a dream for security, a dream of economy. The dream for security becomes a dream of hate, dreams of guns and bullets. The dream of economy at homes; it is heat, light and food, is also a dream of energy. Volatile and insecure dreams as oil and gas triggering wars, oil wars, economic wars, insecurity wars. Energy wars with guns and bullets from time to time, here and there, endless wars, ugly wars. Barbaric wars fuelled by slaves of wars and arms. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. With whom to talk and walk the walk, together, all together. World in blocks and Unions, east and west; and something else. Blocks in fate, which fate? Volatile blocks, volatile fates, breaking down now and then, here and there calling for wars. As in traffic, blocks and fates are just communication roads fuelled by oil; right or left with red zones, forbidden zones, insecure zones but always crossed. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. West and East, North and South; opposite blocks with own goals or no goals. As in chemistry: ‘acids’ and ’alkalines’; or in physics: ‘positive’ and negative’ charges. In peace, they follow laws of chemistry and physics to trade; win-win with no loss. In conflict, as ‘particles’ and ‘anti-particles’ in physics; west-east and north-south, fight together to anni-hilate each other. But unlike in physics, no conservation to follow, always lose, just lose and great losses. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Renewable dreams not fossil dreams. Energy isn’t for free, produced and used, but never wisely and clean. Energy needs minerals, fossil minerals; mined and processed, yielding waste, waste and more waste. Conservation of materials; life-cycles for renewables, recycling for circular and clean economy. A dream, easy to say year after year, decade after decade, it is still a dream, an unachievable dream, a dream, a dream that we all dream. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Security in peace; energy for prosperity. Prosperity, Security and Peace aren’t for free. With and without gas, oil and coal, we still have dreams. Renewable dreams. Dream of all dreams; clean air, water and food, clean life; prosperity for all with security and peace. It is said: the renewables are the solution; do we have all the solutions? Solutions to live in prosperity, security and peace? The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

The dream of all dreams, is just a dream. Energy, Economy and Prosperity in Security and Peace, for all; why West and East, North and South? Why they and we; you and me? Would the invisible walls, separating us from achieving prosperity goals, the UN-SDGs, go away and become ruins of the past as the Berlin wall? Are we still preparing for a grand war, a nuclear, a Third World War. Let it be Actions for the UN-SDGs and not for another World War. The dream of all dreams, is just a dream.

Falling in love to break away from industries and blocks for wars, carrying away all of us from peace, in a global captivity of irresponsible consumption of minerals; natural and fossil. The dream of all dreams, a dream of love that is requiring from us a love song, but how shall we sing a peace song in a strange land of wars? Let our thoughts of circular economy and the meditation of our hearts and souls for prosperity, take us away from the disease of wars for growth economy.

Ever, forever …. Secrets of Life

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. I have always life in me, ME ‘Mother Earth’. My star, my Sun, we share a secret together. It is the secret of life in you and me. My life, all forms of life, without you it wouldn’t be any life in ME, you and me. My star, my Sun, your gravity is holding me, is moving me around you, forever. My star, I am the only planet in a cosmic family that has life, an eternal life. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. My star, burning star, reactor, fusion reactor. My star, my sun. The life in you isn’t like the life in me. I am a planet not a star. Your heat and energy are enormous. I have spheres protecting, safe-guarding me. My star, my sun. Materials and magnets screening the lethal radiation and particles from you. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. Fulfilling my dreams, the dreams of life in me. The one, only one shining life on me. Giving life, life everywhere in and on ME. Life on land, life in soils, life in forests. Life in waters, lakes, rivers and oceans. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. Energy in your light, shining on me, fuelling me. Photons falling on me, carrying energy, energy in motion, propagating in me. The invisible photons, colourful quanta and phonons, giving life to cells in my water and on my land. Flow of energy; atoms and molecules fuse together, generating life and energy. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. Cascade of life, biodiversity expanding in me. Chains and chains forming life, webs of life, feeding on each other, feeding on me. Day, after day, year after year, hundreds, thousands, millions, billions of years. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. Life, lasting life, always young and fresh forever. Healthy and wealthy life; happily evolving ever and forever, here and there. Nature without schooling, ME myself a science-engineering university, all in all. Ever, forever and ever, life forever.

Ever, forever and ever, life forever. ME is a cyclopaedia and work in progress. The planet ‘Mother Earth’ and its star ‘The Sun’ have always secrets, yet are always generous. The nature and the power in ME, are legacies of life, forever. Did we understand and learn from them? Did Homo Sapiens sustain the renewable gift of life that is given to them for free? Yes or No. If yes how and if no why?

The secrets my friend, as we know them by today, seem to be blown, blown away, even gone gone with the wind, may be gone forever.

They Asked Me – Mother Earth.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, the mother of all mothers. The mother of all species, the Homo Sapiens, you and me, the children of a mighty mother, mother Earth. They asked me about you, I said: I can’t live without you.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me, let me dance with my partners. Let me dance with the music, the music of gravity waves of my galaxy. The milky way, the sun and its planets, the planetary system in our universe. Let me dance with my star, a twinkling star, a living star, a shining star. Shining on me, warming me for free and nourishing me with vitamin D.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me feel the gentle moist in the air, gently touching my skin. Moist that evaporates up to the sky, forming clouds in the sky. Clouds turning to tears and sometimes to rain. Rain that fall and flow on my skin, nourishing me. Showers of a crying sky, cleaning me and the air, the air around me, fresh air that we breathe, you and me.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let the water flow through my skin, the soil on the land, let the water flow in rivers, the arteries of life. Let the water flow, stay here and there, in lakes, large and small. Let the water flow, flow and slowly seep through my skin, years after years, thousand or million of years, deep and deeper to rest after a long, a long journey. Rest and sleep deep in me, to be fossil, in my ground, groundwater in aquifers. Let it flow, flow here and there, to a large space, huge, an endless space, the sea. There, it gets warm and evaporate again and again to moist, the moist that is longing to come back to nourish me.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me be happy, happy for the free gift from the sky, pristine water, clean water, water that we drink, you and me. Nourishing my skin with minerals and nutrients once were eroded from my skin, a long the way, long way, everywhere. An eternal journey of water on, or in, my body, driven in motion by the heat of a star, a burning star. Keeping me a life, a life in cycles here and there refreshing my skin, thanks to its organic fabrics, catching the moist from air the and holding it in my skin, so it doesn’t get dry and die. A renewable life, a sustainable life, a legacy of the generous nature.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me, let me feed you and all other species, the animals and plants living on my skin. Species that I created in thousands or even in millions of years. It is the cry of the sky, the heat and shine of the sun nourishing me. Thanks for a free and renewable energy from a twinkling star, shining on me. It is the skin covering my body, a primordial and dynamic bio-geo-chemical reactor full of life on land and under the water. Turning the photons of the light, the molecules of the water, the substances of life in my body, and the trace-gases in, and from, the air ‘carbon dioxide’ to green forests, and a food-chain of vegetables and fruits on land, and fish and shellfish from rivers, lakes and seas. We also lucky to get fresh oxygen, for all species on land and under the water, to breathe.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me be warm, but not so warm in the thin cover on my skin, the cover above me, around me. Air masses and moist that is always in constant flow. It is a global flow from my waist at the equator. A flow here and there, up and higher up in spheres around me. All, or some of them, fall down, and down again to the poles, to be at rest and be in peace. The vapour in my clouds get squeezed to snow and buried in ice, polar ice and glaciers along the way. The magic of the heat from the sun forces the cover of my skin to change phase: moist on leaves and vapour in turbulent motion, silent waters and falling water, the waterfalls, falling snow, freezing to ice and in sheets of ice.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me feel, feel the energy in my body, the hydro-power in a flowing water, an energy in motion from upstream to down stream, from the land of the high mountains to the deltas of the low land at the sea. Let me, feel the energy hidden in air, the pressure gradients above me, the air masses blowing with the moving wind here and there, on the land and above the sea. Let me feel the energy within me, geothermal energy deep in my hot body, the hot vapour bursting out of the dark space deep in my body to see the light of the day at the surface of my skin.

They Asked Me – Mother Earth.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, the mother of all mothers. The mother of all species, the Homo Sapiens, you and me, the children of a mighty mother, mother Earth. They asked me about you, I said: I can’t live without you.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me, let me dance with my partners. Let me dance with the music, the music of gravity waves of my galaxy. The milky way, the sun and its planets, the planetary system in our universe. Let me dance with my star, a twinkling star, a living star, a shining star. Shining on me, warming me for free and nourishing me with vitamin D.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me feel the gentle moist in the air, gently touching my skin. Moist that evaporates up to the sky, forming clouds in the sky. Clouds turning to tears and sometimes to rain. Rain that fall and flow on my skin, nourishing me. Showers of a crying sky, cleaning me and the air, the air around me, fresh air we breathe, you and me.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let the water flow through my skin, the soil on the land, let the water flow in rivers, the arteries of life. Let the water flow, stay here and there, in lakes, large and small. Let the water flow, flow and slowly seep through my skin, years after years, thousand or million of years, deep and deeper to rest after a long, a long journey. Rest and sleep deep in me, to be fossil, in my ground, groundwater in aquifers. Let it flow, flow here and there, to a large space, huge, an endless space, the sea. There, it gets warm and evaporate again and again to moist, the moist that is longing to come back to nourish me.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me be happy, happy for the free gift from the sky, pristine water, clean water, water that we drink, you and me. Nourishing my skin with minerals and nutrients once were eroded from my skin, a long the way, long way, everywhere. An eternal journey of water on, or in, my body, driven in motion by the heat of a star, a burning star. Keeping me a life, a life in cycles here and there refreshing my skin, thanks to its organic fabrics, catching the moist from air the and holding it in my skin, so it doesn’t get dry and die. A renewable life, a sustainable life, a legacy of the generous nature.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me, let me feed you and all other species, the animals and plants living on my skin. Species that I created in thousands or even in millions of years. It is the cry of the sky, the heat and shine of the sun nourishing me. Thanks for a free and renewable energy from a twinkling star, shining on me. It is the skin covering my body, a primordial and dynamic bio-geo-chemical reactor full of life on land and under the water. Turning the photons of the light, the molecules of the water, the substances of life in my body, and the trace-gases in, and from, the air ‘carbon dioxide’ to green forests, an enormous food-chain of vegetables and fruits on land, and fish and shellfish from rivers, lakes and seas. We also lucky to get fresh oxygen, for all species on land and under the water to breathe.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me be warm, but not so warm in the thin cover on my skin, the cover above me, around me. Air masses and moist that is always in constant flow. It is a global flow from my waist at the equator. A flow here and there, up and higher up in spheres around me. The all, or some of them, fall down, and down again to the poles, to be at rest and be in peace. The vapour in my clouds get squeezed to snow and buried in ice, polar ice and glaciers along the way. The magic of the heat from the sun forces the cover of my skin to change phase: moist on leaves and vapour in turbulent motion, silent waters and falling water, the waterfalls, falling snow, freezing to ice and in sheets of ice.

They asked me, they asked me about you, my mother, you said: let me feel, feel the energy in my body, the hydro-power in a flowing water, an energy in motion from upstream to down stream, from the land of the high mountains to the deltas of the low land at the sea. Let me, feel the energy hidden in air, the pressure gradients above me, the air masses blowing with the moving wind here and there, on the land and above the sea. Let me feel the energy within me, geothermal energy deep in my hot body, the hot vapour bursting out of the dark space deep in my body to see the light of the day at the surface of my skin.

A Poem For Humanity – Once Upon A Time

Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. People of the same roots but here and there. They lived on land and moved on land, in valleys and mountains, crossed the seas and the rivers, but still the same people.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. They weren’t plenty and life was simple but yet tough. With all the ups and downs, they could live on whatever they hunted, gathered or planted on their land.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. They lived on nature, clean nature, and shared what they had. They lived the life, as it was, full of risks, natural risks. But no worries, it was green and they were together, laugh and cry, all in all. 
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. They were humble and full of trust, trust of fate, whatever fate. They were poor but not greedy.  They were sad, even very sad but still happy. They were helpless but could help and even hopeless but full of hopes.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. They shared the land, the water and the sun, the same sun that nourished their life, their stocks, the lifestocks. Life was tough with ups and downs, they could settle now and then. But it came times where they walked the walk, the same walk, all together. 
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. They lived on what they got and what they got was with hands or simple tools. All from the water, the forest, the land, the soils, and what they farmed.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. Now they learned to think, master tools and machinery and use their brains for more knowledge. Now they can fly or sail here and there and be anywhere on four wheels, not anymore by horses and camels.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. Now they can sit and even relax, and watch themselves in solid frames, to see the magic of their hands, their memories and the thoughts in their brains.
 
Once upon a time, there were people, the same people. Now work can be done less and much less by hands, fast and even much faster than ever by fabricated memories, RAM and storage memories, even in invisible memories of a complex landscape of clouds.  
 
Once upon a time, it came a time where the compassion of people went away and their wisdom faded to nowhere. The care for one another became buried in sand, as they got rich and richer and with their money they can buy, trade and get even more and more.
 
Once upon a time, it came a time where they revolted upon themselves, upon each other and upon their land and home, the mother Earth. The same people became new people, different people, more and more people.
 
 Once upon a time, it came a time where people were led by knowledge, plenty of knowledge, knowledge that can fly. Now they can talk but not in person as knowledge can travel in the air and move free. More and more, fast and faster with no limits.
 
Once upon a time, it came a time where money and things can move free in space from place to place and fast as the light of the sun. Information and communication can connect not only people to people, but also people to things and things to things.  
 
Once upon a time, it came a time where it became difficult to know what is what and information can be misinformation here and there. People drifted away from each other by frictions and illusions that with knowledge anything is possible, even to control nature and the planet, any planet.
 
Once upon a time, it came a time of a war after war, escalation of wars, silent and cold wars. Wall after wall fell and the Berlin wall became ruins of the past.
 
Once upon a time, the remains of old wars didn’t heal. The pain of the deep wounds of the past was still there. The threats of the invisible walls, the armed and nuclear wars were still there.
 
Once upon a time, it came a time, the time of economic wars. Yet, there were no worries as with the power of money people can do more and get more. More and more from people, from nature and from the planet, yes any planet. No worries we can have more and get more. It is the time of ‘I, me and mine’.
 
Then it came a time, a time where peace and liable talks became far, still very far in the distant past of the old times of wars. Honorable life on Earth is now merely a mirage that became more and more etched deep, deeper than ever, in our genes.
 
Once upon a time, it came a time. It is the time of all times, the time of either people on the planet, the whole planet, either love each other and love their planet, or die all together.

The Emerging Technologies of Vertical Cities.

With increasing global population and the growing sizes of horizontal cities which require much areal expansion on land that otherwise can be used for parks and green areas, vertical cities may very well be an alternative for housing. Though horizontal cities have many advantages, brought comfort to their citizens, contributed in organization of daily life and facilitated employment and effectively coupled businesses to the socio-economic conditions in societies, Yet, the fast urbanization and the huge expansion of horizontal cities come with several forms of negative impacts such urban-heat waves, increasing pollution and waste, land degradation and associated effects on water, energy, natural resources, biodiversity and life-quality. These environmental changes along with climate change will still trigger further wicked and multi-layered threats.

Vertical cities can be can be constructed in different 3D-architectural structures with interlinked flours that have environment and self-sustainable towers extending high in the sky. These 3D architectural buildings can save energy, water and preserve horizontal land for forest, agriculture and food production as well as promotion of recreation and biodiversity. These are of importance for supporting the UN-SDGs and promoting life-quality and prosperity. With modern technology and AI ‘Artificial Intelligence’ maintenance and running costs of vertical cities can be more economic and effective than traditional horizontal ones (https://youtu.be/d0gqonPNBgU).

There are growing sources of information and data on vertical cities, the involved technologies and other issues of relevance. The vertical city organization (https://verticalcity.org/index.html), for example, has the mission to inspire the ongoing conversation for the creation of new systems of living and was established by Ken King in 2012, Its aim is to ignite global debates about vertical cities as a more sustainable future with large and urgent solutions to the existing problems. It has team members in Portland Oregon, New York City, and Shanghai. It is supported by dozens of architecture, urban planning, energy, and sustainability experts that contributed with insights into the vertical city concept.

There are also books that give wide-range of the state-of-art on vertical cities. The Vertical City book ‘A Solution For Sustainable Living is a massive, is a multicolor, seminal and beautifully printed book. In this groundbreaking work, the authors Kenneth King and Kellogg Wong interviewed more than 30 of the world’s top architects, urban designers, engineers, microbiologists, transportation and sustainability experts before developing their proposal for vertical cities (https://verticalcity.org/index.html). The book itself envisions a sustainable future as based on emerging technologies of Vertical Cities. A Solution to Sustainable Living is the first and only book of its kind but this Kickstarter campaign is about way more than the book. The author Kenneth King was born in Shanghai in 1933 and currently living in New York City. He is an ecologically-driven and experienced architect with more than 40 years of professional work, known for the Montazah project in Alexandria, Egypt and Mokkattam project in Cairo that become a model for waste management in developing countries (https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/rayking/vertical-city-a-solution-for-sustainable-living).

Among other books is ‘Vertical Cities: 12 Towers Take Urban Density to the Skies’ in which it describe the advantage of the virtually endless vertical space within urban centers, entire cities-within-cities that could spring up into the skies, packing in thousands of new housing units as well as parks, recreational space, offices, shops and everything else you’d expect to find in traditional cities. These 12 residential skyscraper designs build up instead of out, often using staggered or stepped arrangements of stacked modules to maintain air circulation, access to daylight, views and other features as well (https://weburbanist.com/2015/06/17/vertical-cities-12-towers-take-urban-density-to-the-skies/). An alternative other than creating closed class-based communities, most make their communal spaces open to the public, and reserve the ground level for greenery. Examples on vertical cities (or semi-vertical cities) include: high-rise high-density tropical living in Singapore; stacked modules in Vancouver; vertical village in Singapore by OMA; vertical city in Jakarta; Burj Khalifa in Dubai.

The Water-Climate Nexus: Greening Deserts and Cities

Greening the deserts and cities are crucial for people’s wellbeing, alleviation of poverty and mitigation of climate change. Large-scale and long-term greening of the landscape whether in deserts or urban areas is a major challenge in many parts of the world. Though the ongoing threats of climate change there are successful examples of scaling-up and scaling-out the greening of deserts and cities.

This might seem as a paradox, difficult and even impossible mission, how is it possible to green the landscape under an ongoing crisis of climate where the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere is projected to increase more than 1.5 degrees Celsius in the near future. But it isn’t at all a paradox as such a scenario depends on the first hand on how to get the water to remain in the top surface layer of soils at the earth’s surface, i.e. to let the water to residence there for relatively longer time being bound in soil matrices and vegetations. It is a matter of getting the right balance between saving the water in soils and loosing it to the atmosphere by evaporation or the underlying soils by percolation. This is indeed the core essence of both mitigating the climate change and at the same time greening the landscape of the earth’s surface. However, this will still be possible and feasible as long as we don’t surpass the tipping points of the global water cycle that allows this equilibrium to take place on large and long-time scales. This is imperative and mandatory to mitigate the climate change in many parts of the world.

China has realized the importance to promote its ecological progress as being of vital importance to the people’s wellbeing and China’s future. Nearly 30 years ago, or more, the Kubuqi Desert in Inner Mongolia, i.e. the seventh largest desert in China, was a barren land with no water, electricity, or future. However, Elion Resources Group (ELION) has successfully afforested an area of over 6,000 square kilometers by means of technological innovation, leading to a 95 percent decrease in sand-dust weather and an increase by six times in precipitation in Kubuqi. This has also been a major step for alleviation of poverty in the region. During the process of ecosystem restoration it has been an industrial development simultaneously driven by desertification control and promotion of several government support to integrate diverse corporate commercial investments with combined market-oriented participation by farmers and herdsmen.

Sustainable developments is indeed a development with an emphasis on environmental and ecological improvements which resulted in transforming the vast areas of the Kubuqi Desert from being a “Sea of Death” to a “Green Economy Oasis” as we have it today. It is also a major shift towards a circular economy driven by sustainable and resilient circular agriculture technology for better environment and ecology with financial benefits and wellbeing to local communities and residents. The right strategies, persistent and resilient efforts allowed to successfully turn the vast expanse of dry and loose sand into wealth and prosper landscape for millions of people along with greener and healthy living environments.

After more than three decades of efforts and innovation, the process of desertification has been reversed and water returned back to land after centuries of ‘mismanaged’ animal grazing that had denuded the area of almost all vegetation and water where the local population existed in isolated poverty. Such large-scale and long-term transformation of barren sand-dunes into green oases can offer lasting solutions to desertification worldwide. Indeed, China is one of the most severely afflicted deserts in the world. By the end of the 20th century, China’s deserts were expanding at a combined annual rate of 10,400 sq km but now they are shrinking at a rate of 2,424 sq km per year. This is while the deserts and desertified landscape worldwide continue to expand by 70,000 sq km annually.

“Deserts should not be seen as a problem, but as an opportunity for change. Taking care of the desert and making it greener can lift people out of poverty, provide prosperity and help to develop areas,” says Wang Yujie, deputy director of the China National Sand Control and Desert Industry Society (http://www.china.org.cn/china/2016-10/11/content_39464603; http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2018-08/10/content_36739870.htm). The transformation of the Kubuqi desert to green land, changed also the life of the farmers and herdsmen from being plagued by violent sandstorms causing serious shortages of water and electricity, also resulting in poor basic living infrastructure including the lack of roads for transportation. As in many other deserts in the world the local people could hardly survive in sandy-dunes with miserable and poor living conditions where animals and cattle are forced to die from starvation and from being so thirsty in the cruel nature of the desert.

Singapore has also successfully turned their cities to green-living conditions though the complete lack of fresh-water resources as is the case in desert lands. The entire land of Singapore is transformed to sustainable, resilient and smart living environments relying primarily and totally on renewables from solar-energy and the continuous recycling of renewable water resources. China and Singapore, and to lesser extent the GCC countries, demonstrated that modern technology can turn uninhabitable landscapes to friendly and lovely living environments (https://youtu.be/P45r3vtU9lM).

Bhutan: First To Be Carbon Neutral But How and Why?

Kingdom of Bhutan – is the only single country in the world that isn’t only carbon-neutral but carbon-negative. It has replaced the generally and globally accepted concept of Gross Domestic Product ‘GDP’ by its own home-made concept Growth National Happiness ‘GNH’.

Bhutan (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhutan) has moved quickly from being one of the most closed states on the planet to an open, more or less, ‘modern’ country. It has its own local traditions that are intertwined with their social and economic spheres as well as religion. It has proved to be on the correct path towards full sustainability as it has to large extent eradicated corruption. It has tightly and gradually linked their traditions and religion to achieve environmental safety, economic growth, social developments including maintaining its own cultural heritage.

There are several reasons that allowed Bhutan to move fast towards reaching the status of being, the first country on the planet, Carbon Negative nation. It has very small population, one million, living on limited piece of land with well preserved nature (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/bhutan-landscape.html) and biodiversity. It has implemented rules to regulate the protection of its land and to use eco-tourism to support its public services specially education and health. Modern technology arrived to Bhutan very late, by the end of the 20th century, yet it is moving slowly in the process of urbanisation with focus on own self-sufficiency of food and respect for nature. This is though being located between two major economies, i.e. China and India, with much growing technological changes. It has banned export of its natural resources and it is using hydroelectric power as main source of electricity. It has already banned the fossil-fuel to be used by its industries. Its economy is based on agriculture yet with environmentally friendly processes. It is also moving towards the use of electric vehicles. In 2030 the country will start to absorb much more (several times) carbon than it emits and it will also be free from the air-pollution.

🛑 Fridays for Future – Global Climate Demonstrations.

Employees at Uppsala University UU, and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, joining the Global Climate Demonstration today Friday 24 September at Forumtorget in Uppsala around 15.30.

This is to show the leadership of UU and SLU their concern about the climate crisis, and to demand immediate action against the climate change. Universities need to show in practical terms and measures that they takes science seriously NOW, and they need to lead not only by examples but by actions as well.

https://stayhappening.com/e/global-klimatstrejk-uprootthesystem-E2ISTVWDWE0

Would Liquid Metal Batteries Revolutionize Energy Storage?

Energy is one of the three main drivers, i.e. water, energy and natural resources, of all life forms on Earth. The sustainability of these three main drivers is a pre-request for our survival and more importantly for the survival of all forms of life on Earth (https://youtu.be/f6kwNNdOVr4), and more importantly for prosperity and improved life-quality. Unlike the other two drivers, energy conservation is of much more importance not only to satisfy our daily needs but on the first hand to cope with the many direct and indirect existential threats facing life. Also, how much energy we are consuming determines how much natural resources, including water, we would need for our activities. Energy in all its forms, either as stationary fossil or dynamic renewable resources, has complex interwoven challenges as it is strongly coupled to the social, environment and economic pillars of our modern lifestyle. Also, all energy production, distribution and uses are more or less, associated with different degrees and levels of negative impacts. Progress in energy conservation and renewable energy sources is determinant for the ongoing sustainability revolution not only to a climate-compatible circular economy, but also essential for achieving sustainable and resilient societies (UN-SDGs). We therefore need to be less dependent on fossil-fuel based-energy and to scale-up and scale-out clean and sustainable energy resources on the global scale. Renewables without appropriate affordable storage is not sustainable, we need also to have different sustainable and resilient storage alternatives for solar and wind energy solutions that can meet the different environment, weather and climate conditions. For example, limitations do exist in hot regions as in the MENA region and other parts in the world where the Li-ion batteries may not be the best choice. Also, manufacturing and production facilities need to be available where the natural raw materials for production are abundant. So, what regards batteries, one-size-fits-all option is unlikely to be sustainable and resilient under all conditions.

Moving away from fossil-fuel (coal, oil and gas) to renewable energy resources isn’t an overnight process as it is associated with many complex challenges specially what regards the huge needs of electricity generation, use and consumption, i.e. production and supply (https://youtu.be/eRz46AwPcSc). Solar and wind are becoming increasingly crucial for scaling- up and scaling-out the renewable energy resources. However, the very nature of these renewables by being intermittent sources and the fact that there is a wide-range of dynamic and variable needs by the stakeholders around the world in terms of intensity of energy needed in different applications.

One important aspect in the scaling-up and scaling-out the use of the renewable energy resources of solar and wind energy is battery-storage. Li-ion batteries, though are currently one of the best storage facilities, they still have several limitations to fulfill full scale applications that are required by the markets’ needs. Lithium-ion batteries are not necessarily the only ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution for the energy storage of renewable solar and wind energies. They prone to fire and require extensive non-renewable resource extraction from the earth which may not be sustainable in the longer run because of the side-effects associated with their production and processing as well as the complete LC ‘life-cycle’ of the batteries, i.e. effective recovery of the raw materials.

An alternative new technology for energy storage is emerging in the world market. The US-based Ambri is now one of the so-far leading alternatives in energy storage and it aims to lower electricity costs, enable easy access and widespread usage of renewable energy systems, among other things. It is doing this by working on alternatives to lithium-ion technology such as liquid metal batteries and antimony electrode-based cells that are more resilient, long-lasting and eco-friendly (https://youtu.be/NiRrvxjrJ1U; https://www.google.se/amp/s/www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/ril-rnsel-mukesh-ambani-ambri-renewable-energy-storage-7314091.html/amp). This liquid metal battery is an innovation in stationary electricity storage invented by Prof. Donald Sadoway, MIT, USA. At present Ambri can cater to projects that require energy storage systems from 10 MWh to 2 GWh. Energy-intensive industries need to reach climate neutrality by 2050. Various technologies are available for the decarbonisation of the iron and steel, chemicals, refining and cement industries as well as the existing financial instruments (https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2020/652717/IPOL_STU(2020)652717_EN.pdf). However, suitable energy storage technologies are still needed to help shape and enhance the transition to a climate neutral industries, specially the energy-intensive ones, not only in Europe but around the world.

Energy storage is vital not just for the business of mobility but for reducing the overall cost of electricity and, more importantly, mitigating climate change. It plays an integral role in the development and integration of renewable energy technologies—a technological space that is seeing rapid development. Energy storage is an indispensable bridge between intermittent renewable power and a constant, glitch-free supply of electric energy. Achieving sustainable and resilient societies would require having diverse and customized solutions to meet an increasing need of off-grid and decentralized energy-options, e.g. in rural and remote areas for household (https://youtu.be/yxABosWfuus) and also for energy-intensive industries (https://youtu.be/m8751tkBU_Q; https://youtu.be/m8751tkBU_Q; https://www.energy-storage.news/ambris-liquid-metal-battery-to-be-used-at-desert-data-centre-in-nevada/). As this will unload overpopulated urban areas and cities. The needs of such options are timely because of the huge flexibility that is offered by ICT ‘Information Communication Technology’ and AI ‘Artificial Intelligence’ that allow not being totally dependent on urban areas and cities. Agriculture and rural areas are still essential for our living and they are the underlying platform for supporting urban areas and cities.

It is still interesting to see how this new approach of liquid metal batteries for storage of renewable energies from solar and wind will continue their long-term progress (https://www.google.se/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/davidblackmon/2021/09/02/bill-gates-backed-startup-might-change-the-renewable-energy-storage-game/amp/).

Ambri a new addition to battery technology.

Emergency Action to Restore Biodiversity and Protect Health from Global Environment Crisis

Indeed, it is not only about climate change anymore it is rather about a much wider large-scale and long-term Environmental crisis with unpredictable and irreversible impacts on biodiversity in general and the global health of humans in particular.

The combined effects and consequences of the ongoing degradation in biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere on biodiversity and human health would create severe health threats for all life forms on planet Earth. These degradation are brought about by environmental (e.g. pollution and waste) and climate change because of green-house gases specially carbon-dioxide. There are already signs of such effects but not yet understood and systematically researched. Such wicked and complex problems are new in science in general and medical ones in particular, They can’t, and will not, be cured by medical treatments and far beyond human capabilities to deal with even if the multilayered unknowns will be known. The functioning and metabolism in our bodies depends very strongly on the environmental conditions including the temperature. This wasn’t known for Darwin.

The UN General Assembly in September 2021 will bring countries together to meet again at the biodiversity summit in Kunming, China, and the climate conference (COP26) in Glasgow, UK. This time is about the serious situation what concerns the risks to health of increases above 1.5°C, which are now well established. The call in this post is stating that “Indeed, in the past 20 years, heat related mortality among people aged over 65 has increased by more than 50%. Among other things higher temperatures will bring about increased dehydration and renal function loss, dermatological malignancies, tropical infections, adverse mental health outcomes, pregnancy complications, allergies, and cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Harms disproportionately affect the most vulnerable, including children, older populations, ethnic minorities, poorer communities, and those with underlying health problems”.

Editorial Board of BMJ for emergency action to limit global temperature increase, restore biodiversity, and protect health (https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1734). As stated in this article “Health professionals are united with environmental scientists, businesses, and many others in rejecting that this outcome is inevitable. More can and must be done now—in Glasgow and Kunming—and in the immediate years that follow. We join health professionals worldwide who have already supported calls for rapid action.”

Though the current attention ⚠️ is focused on climate change we have to take in consideration many other large-scale and long-term threats that are associated with the increasing environmental degradation from pollution and waste. This calls wider actions to promote and implements the UN-SDGs.

COVID-19: Crisis and Challenges in Higher Education. The New Imperatives and Opportunities.

COVID-19 has changed the reality of life for many of us and will continue to do so for sometime. The first sectors that suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic were health services, the tourism and hospitality sectors along with other labor, trade and industry sectors.

Higher education, and education in general, has also been impacted by COVID-19 in various ways and are facing a global crisis that may take relatively longer time to recover depending of level of preparedness, availability of resources, existing infrastructures and degree of resilience. However, the crisis in education and higher education didn’t come as a surprise as it has been an ever growing cracking in higher education and global education systems in general, since the birth of ICT and IOT, and even before that. Indeed, many education systems around the world are either inherited or imported which have caused ever increasing gaps between what students get from their education and what is really needed in the market specially in the developing countries. Another short coming in higher education is the strong rooted tradition in out-dated disciplinary-based education systems where graduates have serious difficulties to meet today’s complexity in the labor market. The ongoing crisis is of global dimension and has introduced remarkable effects in R&D and also the associated educational infra-structures.

COVID-19 has changed our world dramatically and as we have in business and trade if you’re a brick-and-mortar retailer, an online store is no longer a nice-to-have; it’s essentially a must-have (https://www.bigcommerce.com/articles/offline-to-online/brick-and-mortar-retailers/). It is an inductive process that will be propagated very fast in all other sectors with far many new imperatives. All people simply need to be able to find you and communicate with you online. The COVID-19 has put new imperatives on sharp display when many brick-and-mortar stores were forced to temporarily shut their doors. Having an online store was the only way forward and it is likely that our world will change, at least partially in this direction as was the case with the old postage-system, to online banking, on-line booking of hotels, food, travels and all other ICT-services. Indeed, education will follow the same trend in a way or another. Though, the brick and mortar framework will still be the mainstay of our education system, for sometime, because of its undeniable advantages to learning in a shared physical space, online education is progressively and continuously gaining popularity. Still there are obstacles that need to be solved and will be solved. It is not a matter any longer of IF but rather WHEN and when was already yesterday. The autonomy and flexibility of e-learning make them extremely popular with working professionals and students as the entire e-learning industry is changing rapidly. This is an essential part of the ongoing Information Revolution.

Though there can be challenges to successfully tune and transform higher education systems, and the whole education landscape in general, from Brick & Mortar to Click & Mortar (https://digitallearning.eletsonline.com/2019/12/education-landscape-from-brick-mortar-to-click-mortar/) there are major long-term benefits and opportunities for generations to come. However, as we have learned from history higher education, and education systems, by being part of our social landscape are very much dependent on our lifestyle. Our life as we have it today and as it would be in the future is very much impacted by moving away from Brick & Mortar to Click and Mortar as the digital technologies are definitely here to stay and we have to adapt to this imperative reality. Sustain-earth.com will expand on many issues related to future threats, challenges and opportunities what regards higher education and and education in general.

Sustainable Developments and Role of Water-Energy Systems in the Anthropocene

Our water-energy systems around the world have complex and comprehensive interactions within and between each other. Yet, the complexity is accelerating more and more as global water-energy resources are also dependent on in the ongoing changes in the climate and environment. More importantly, the growth in world population along the increasing needs for water, energy, food and natural resources as well as eco-system services add new dimensions to how and when we can achieve the goals of the UN-SDGs.

The WEBINAR https://youtu.be/G3D0X96IuqY conducted at Boston University throws some light on what, why and how we can advance our knowledge on water-energy-food-climate nexus.

Part II of the ‘Sustainability in Science and Technology’ – The Human Performance.

The performance of humans is driven by diverse needs for food and security to overcome the challenges for decent live on Earth. 

This is an introduction to Part Two of the WEBINARS on “Sustainability in Science and Technology” – The Performance of humans’, hosted by sustain-earth.com.

Africa is the origin of homo sapiens and the renewables helped their evolution during millions of years and their migration out of Africa 70 000 years ago.

During the hunting gatherer era humans started to master artefacts and simple tools, also to build small communities and settlements. They domesticated animals, plants and learned to cultivate land and build shelters for their living.

The agricultural era that started 10 000 years ago culminated in an outstanding ancient Egyptian civilisation that lasted 3000 years. During this era people used water to promote agriculture, farming and to produce food. These achievements were made possible by taking advantages of renewable resources only, the sun (heat and light), water from the Nile and limited use of natural resources.

The mechanisation of agriculture in the 18th century during the first industrial revolution triggered increasing use of artificial pesticides and fertilisers. However, the limited water resources on Earth caused new needs for diversification of water production and management in order to have clean, affordable and accessible water for the growing population and the increasing urbanisation. The first industrial revolution involved various manufacturing processes supported by water and steam power.

The second industrial revolution in Britain was based on increasing electrification and use of combustion engines, rapid standardisation and industrialisation of many sectors in the 19th and 20th centuries. The widespread developments of the first and second industrial revolutions created huge pollution and waste in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere that continued and continued until now. New but limited renewable technologies, however, with zero net emission of green house gases started to appear by the end of the 20th century. This was due to the fear that fossil fuels are limited and have negative impacts on life. These developments were possible by more affordable access to renewable energies and the expanding use of alternating and direct current motors. Indeed, there are still several environmental challenges for scaling-up and scaling-out the renewables. Among these are the storage of renewables and integrating them in well-established grids. However, renewables and batteries require needs for new materials and further expansion of mining and processing that are dependent on heavy consumption of water and energy.

The third industrial revolution of digitalisation started by the end of the 20th century and opened new possibilities for increasing efficiencies and volumes of communication not only between humans but also between humans and machines, and between machines and machines as well.

The Information-Communication-Technologies and the Internet of Things will allow extensive and intensive expansion of Science and Technology with new gates for innovation worldwide on all levels and in many sectors. We have now many examples around the world which demonstrate that the boundaries between science fiction and technological realities are vanishing very very fast. We are, now, in urgent needs to proceed with the 4th industrial revolution and to continue with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning but with careful attention to the demands of renewables, preservation and protection of life.

Pre-announcement for Forthcoming WEBINARS 2021: Sustainability in Science and Technology.

The WEBINARS on Sustainability in Science and Technology will be hosted by sustain-earth.com. and will appear in 2021. They are coordinated by Professor em Farid El-Daoushy (Uppsala University, Sweden) and will be given by many professionals and professors from around the world. It is based on trans-disciplinary and trans-sectoral approaches to explain and detail several patio-temporal yet complex, wicked and interactive problems that piled-up over very long periods of time and caused the evolution of a new geologic era, i.e. the so-called anthropocene.

In part one, the natural drivers of life on planet earth, in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere, will be explained to give the necessary bases for understanding the boundary conditions of the natural climate and environment systems of the Earth. In part two the life-styles of humans ‘homo sapiens’ on planet since their evolution on Earth, and migration out of Africa 70 000 years ago, i.e. during different transitions and changes from the hanter gatherer era until now will be followed. Part three will give the impacts of the combined spatio-temporal interactions between human life and the planets’ own drivers on the global economic systems. Further part three will involve issues related to growth economy versus circular economy. In part four analysis of the performance of sustainability with reference to the first three parts will be done. In this context, resilience in human knowledge versus science, technology and innovation will be examined. These four parts together will give background information on ‘what, why and how’ what regards sustainability can be put together in a resilient framework to scale-up and scale-out science, technology and innovation to meet the UN-SDGs in order to achieve prosperity on planet Earth.

In summary the forthcoming WEBINARS can be described as follows:

Part One: The performance of planet Earth.

Part Two: The performance of humans ‘Homo Sapiens’.

Part Three: The performance of world economic systems with consideration to growth economy versus circular economy.

Part Four: The performance of sustainability. Resilience in knowledge versus science and technology.

Highly Recommended – All Our Food Is Nature Made. However ‘AI’ and ‘ML’ can Improve Food Industries.

Photosynthesis is the main reaction behind all life forms on planet Earth, it triggers life processes in global eco-systems on land and in aquatic systems (ocean, lakes and rivers). For photosynthesis to do its job and produce all forms of healthy and nutritious food that makes up global biodiversity, including us humans the ‘Homo Sapiens’ (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) water is needed. Indeed, even if we say water is the origin of life, it isn’t totally 💯 correct as we still need carbon dioxide in trace amounts. An important question is high trace is trace? Even though we have water and carbon dioxide at the right concentration, we aren’t done yet, as we also need solar energy ‘light photons’ to initiate this magic reaction and the very secret of nature that evolved four billions of years ago, the ‘photosynthesis’.

There are many other imperatives that are needed for the natural photosynthesis to do its job properly and to keep it in tact with all the functioning and metabolism processes of life forms on earth apart from the reactants, i.e. water, carbon dioxide and the photon from the sun. We need healthy atmosphere and healthy hydrosphere, these underlying spheres of life are currently undergoing continuous degradation by us humans. This indeed imposes great threat for the proper functioning and metabolism of the very basic mechanism that fuels the life on Earth, i.e. the photosynthesis.

The atmosphere is important for agricultural sectors and farming, apart from supporting the forest eco-systems. Naturally healthy and fertile soils, are also needed, that have the right mixture of nutrients and free from toxic chemical remains and heavy metals. Also, soils need to have good water holding capacity which is regulated by the organic content. For the atmosphere to be healthy environment for the photosynthesis to take place on land, we must have suitable atmospheric composition, e.g. carbon dioxide concentration that allows having appropriate temperature, in addition to being a necessary component for photosynthesis. Also, not to have toxic compounds in the atmosphere such as nitrogen oxides that through photo-reactions can produce boundary-layer ozone that has negative impacts on growth of vegetation, in particular forests.

What regards aquatic systems we still need suitable temperature (which is dependent also on the heat-balance in the atmosphere) in water bodies, suitable pH as acidification from acidic nitrogen- and sulphur-oxides destroys the living-habitats of fish such the corals in the ocean, also it destroys the food-web and kills fish as in fresh-water lakes and rivers; suitable amount and levels of oxygen for breathing is also imperative in aquatic systems. Naturally, we need also other trace nutrients in particular phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium (applies also for healthy vegetation on land and agricultural production). However, excess amount of nutrients cause eutrophication as the water bodies become overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of algae. This results in oxygen depletion in the water body after the bacterial degradation of the algae. As an example is the so-called ‘algal bloom’ or great increase of phytoplankton levels. Eutrophication is often induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-compounds, fertilisers or sewage into aquatic systems.

We humans so far failed to imitate nature, i.e. to do what is known as ‘Artificial photosynthesis’ which still science fiction. Would we ever have Artificial Intelligence ‘AI’ to cultivate our earth, produce our food and create an Artificial Biodiversity? ‘AI’ can create robots and machines that imitate us humans in many ways through collecting the patterns of our behaviour. Robots can’t run the life on our planet itself but they can be better version of humans through Machine Learning ‘ML’ and thereby replace humans to do many many jobs in food industries, and also many other industries.

The implementation of AI and ML in food manufacturing and restaurant businesses is already moving our industry to a new level of performance, enabling fewer human errors, less waste of abundant products, less infections. They also allow lowering costs for storage, delivery and transportation. They can create happier customers through timely and quicker service. Even they can allow voice searching, more personalised and effective orders. Robotics for big factories and restaurant businesses will occupy its niche very soon and will bringing more benefits in the long run. Both AI and ML benefit from the enormous flora of sensors, actuators in addition to digital coding and programming.

For more details on these issues see: https://www.google.se/amp/s/spd.group/machine-learning/machine-learning-and-ai-in-food-industry/amp/.

Being able to read all the article we invite you to follow us and subscribe to sustain-earth.com. Meanwhile enjoy these drinks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DT53K9d0vUU

Introduction – Part One: The Three Main Drivers of Life on Planet Earth “Energy, Water and Natural Resources”.

Introduction to the forthcoming WEBINARS, hosted by sustain-earth.com, on “Sustainability in Science, Technology and Innovation ’SISTI’ of Water, Energy and Natural Resources”. Part One of the introduction – The three main drivers of life on Earth: “Energy, Water and Natural Resources WENR”. These drivers, by being dependent on the main underlying and interactive sphere of the Earth System (atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere) are decisive for the performance and quality of both the life on planet Earth and the life of humans.

These three drivers ‘WENR’ have, so far, sustained all life forms on planet earth. Energy from the sun triggers photosynthesis where water in the HYDROSPHERE together with carbon dioxide in ATMOSPHERE have been the bases of all life in the BIOSPHERE both on land and in aquatic systems. Minor amounts of earth’s mineral resources in the upper LITHOSPHERE are also used as nutrients in the evolution of biodiversity and associated eco-services we benefit from as well as the production of our food. Homo Sapiens are not only part of the global biodiversity but they are becoming the main actor shaping it. Homo Sapiens extended the production. use and consumption of energy, water and the natural resources in the atmosphere (where oxygen is also crucial for life), hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere (including fossil minerals) for their living. The extensive and accelerating use of these drivers has surpassed the natural capacities and boundaries of planet earth to sustain all its life forms.

These drivers are imperative to achieve sustainable prosperity through integrated and resilient economic, environmental and social synergies. They involve trans-disciplinary and trans-sectorial (nexus) interactions in the socio-environment-economic fabrics that are shaping the future our planet including all societies around the world. Incorporating Environment-Social-Governace ‘ESG’ is fundamental for healthy and wealthy economies around the world.

To join, follow and get all the updates about our WEBINARS, directly to your e-mail, subscribe @sustain-earth.com. We have also created YouTube channel to support our activities, subscribe and join us.

Is Urbanization Done Right – COVID-19 and Greening of Cities

In the past decades we have observed an accelerating urbanization around the world where many old cities expanded enormously. Leaving little spaces for the citizens to move freely, to breath fresh-air, to exercise in natural environments and even be exposed to the sun. In many cities there are no affordable and easy access to parks, forests and green areas. Even more serious new cities in many parts of the world are built intentionally with increasing densification where living areas are designed to meet the needs of working adults, transport systems and cars as if recreation and children don’t exist.

All of us have definitely experienced the considerable degradation in the life-quality of our modern cities. They became parts of complex industrial production sites and we became part of complex machinery systems. Even with the invent and use of ICT we still over crowded in small areas, i.e. to be as productive as possible. In the early days of the ICT is was believed that people can be more flexible and resilient and not always forced to be in working places. However, business-as-usual became part of our life-style as if ICT doesn’t exist.

COVID-19 has drawn our attention to how urbanization and modern life-style brought with several negative impacts to life-quality. In many cities and urban areas around the world it is even hard to apply ‘physical distancing’ as there are no spaces to do so. Also, ‘stay at home’ isn’t a suitable practice as household may have many persons living in the same appartements and houses. Public transport systems, schools and public services can still be very crowded. Even the use of masks are not standard in many places or even not recommended or recognized as being a safe option. One can ask what options are left other than transmitting infections.

A city is more than its buildings and more than just housing. Modern densification is often about constructing as much housing as possible, as quickly as possible. Of course, considerations are great for housing but in the rush to build quickly it is important to slow down and ask ourselves: What kind of environments and life-style are we creating? Why and for whom are we building? How can we create cities and living environments that are sustainable, resilient and comfortable for everyone? Are our urban spaces contributing in a good built environment for pleasant life?

The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning has produced a
document in response to public debate on the densification of cities and communities, and to provide inspiration and guidance regarding ways to supplement the existing environment. Densification is not only about housing, it is about good built environment and life-quality for the people who live, work and spend time in the city. This publication gives views and arguments concerning some of the challenges and opportunities of densification. It also has interviews conducted with a few people about how they approach the challenges that exist. For example: how people’s needs for sunlight and daylight can be satisfied, how disturbing sounds in a dense city can be handled, how vegetation can be used as a resource, how room for public services can be created, and how a densification strategy for the entire city might be developed. It highlights a number of examples of municipal densification projects, all of which have added value over and above new housing. Mirja Ranesköld, planning architect, was the project leader and Elin Normann Bjarsell, landscape architect, was a member of the project team. Other coworkers contributed with their views and suggestions during the course of the project. The interviews were conducted by Elisabeth Klingberg at PratMinus (https://www.boverket.se/globalassets/publikationer/dokument/2017/urban-density-done-right.pdf).

Here some example of successful planning in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden, where I spent marvelous time in its ’Slottsskogens’ (https://www.goteborg.com/en/slottsskogen/) with an animal park, one of the oldest in Sweden. Just to demonstrate the old good times.