Ordinary Portland cement “OPC” is the most common type of cement in general use around the world by being a basic ingredient in building industry, e.g. concrere, mortar, stucco and most non-speciality grout. It is a fine powder, typically produced by heating materials, e.g. alumino-silicate clay-materials and limestone, at very high temperatures in a kiln, along with small amounts of other materials. It is essential in many construction around the world as concrete is one of the most versatile materials in this context.
The low cost OPC, and widespread availability of other naturally occurring materials used in Portland cement, make it one of lowest-cost materials widely used throughout the world.
Portland cement is caustic, can cause chemical burns, irritation or with severe exposure lung cancer. It, also, contains some toxic ingredients such as silica and chromium. Environmental concerns are very high energy consumption arising from mining, manufacturing and transportation of the cement and the related air pollution including the release of enormous amounts of green-house in particular carbon dioxide. Other amouts of environmental hazard involve dioxin, nitrogen and sulphur oxides as well as fine particulate dust.
“Sustain-earth.com” will expand on detailing the environmental and climatic threats of OPC and the emerging sustainable techniques and friendly materials with more environmentally, economically and socially beneficial values.