The global water cycle is an essential machinery for atmospheric cleaning of the air we breath. Planet Earth has, generally, a wide-range of natural processes, e.g. sedimentation and filteration, that continuously scavenging and remove hazardous compounds from surface- and groundwater. Human activities have posed and still posing continuous and increasing threats to air and water qualities through production of waste and pollution both In the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The water we drink and the air we breath needs to be fresh and free from pollution. Waste and pollution are causing accelerating costs for counteracting the degradation of air and water resources.
Production of acceptable water quality, for example, requires constant implementation of management policies on different scales, i.e. instruments, approaches and regulations for affordable, accessible and continuous supply of drinking water. Yet, under the increasing pressures and competition on water resources.
Nano-technologies have wide-spectra of real-time and on-line solutions with huge range of applications what regards not only monitoring of water resources but also of improving their qualities by various purification solutions and waste/pollution treatments processes. Nano-technology based sensors can be produced for real-time and on-line applications with unique advantages for contiuous remote, effective and economic operation, control and monitoring of many processes. As with all other technologies, there are some unknown side-effects; in this case slow-rates of leakage of nano-particles and compounds (especially with aging) to the environment (air and water).