Category: Uncategorized

HR-Group for UN-SDGs in Africa – Prof. Amidu O. Mustapha.

Sustain-Earth.Com will work on mobilizing Human Resources in Africa for empowering the youth and students for scaling up Science, Technology and Innovation ‘STI’ to promote the UN-SDGs. We are delighted to have Professor Amidu Olalekan Mustapha from University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria to work on these issues.

Furthermore, the necessary instruments and tools will be developed and implemented for active engagement of the higher education, universities and research institutions in Africa to couple ‘STI’ to society, population and market needs. University graduates, early-stage researchers and professionals (according to scientific and technical merits) through dedicated mentoring programmes will act as catalysts in creating the necessary multi-layered links with relevant stakeholders in all sectors and on all levels. The diverse, rich and wide-range of higher education and research programmes in Africa will provide the necessary Human Resources ‘HR’. This will involve raising the public awareness among the involved stakeholders. A data-base will be created to define, collect and compile the expertise, professional and the targeted stakeholders.

The involvement of high-level interactions with sectors and organisations as was the case in previous trans-disciplinary and trans-sectorial activities, e.g. IRPA-Nairobi Conference in 2010 (http://www.iur-uir.org/en/archives/conferences/id-44-afrirpa2010-third-african-irpa-regional-congress) will be assessed. This will be part of building on previous experiences and successes of already existing networking infra-structures. However, this will still require major challenges but suitable grounds will be found for what and how to do. According to Professor Amidu Mustapha there are a number of existing initiatives and platforms that we can link up with, e.g. both in Nigeria and Kenya. The members of the existing groups may also have other goals in addition, but we can benefit mutually in the common areas of environmental sustainability and knowledge development especially among youths.

A starting point will also involve reshaping and tuning two previously given courses at Uppsala university in 2018 and 2019 (http://teknat.uu.se/digitalAssets/395/c_395062-l_3-k_sustainability-in-science-and-technology.pdf; http://www.teknat.uu.se/digitalAssets/395/c_395062-l_1-k_sustainability-in-science-and-technology-2019.pdf). In these two course water, energy and natural resources nexus were detailed in order to explore what, why and how these drivers can be coupled to socio-economic-environment aspects that are necessary to help the ongoing transformation to sustainable societies. Over twenty professors and professionals were involved in conducting these courses, however there are still enormous needs to develop and extend these courses to meet the realities in many developing countries specially in Africa. This is also while considering the practical approaches that would be required in the implementation process. Particularly what regards the existing and emerging needs (UN-SDGs) in Africa for practical and appropriate policies and strategies.

Beirut’s Giant Detonation and the Failed Delivery of Explosives Urges the Need to Re-Examine Trade Rules

Here is the story of (https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/05/world/middleeast/beirut-explosion-ship.html) of a failed delivery of highly explosive ammonium nitrate shipped from Black Sea port of Batumi, in Georgia and was supposed to reach Moçambique. The ammonium nitrate was purchased by the International Bank of Mozambique for Fábrica de Explosivos de Moçambique, a firm that makes commercial explosives, according to Baroudi and Partners, a Lebanese law firm representing the ship’s crew, in a statement issued on Wednesday. The Rhosus, an old leaky troubled ship transporting the volatile cargo of 2 700 tons of ammonium nitrate, arrived in Beirut in November 2013, two months after it left the Black Sea port of Batumi, in Georgia. The ship was leased by a Russian businessman living in Cyprus. Rhosus that never arrived to Moçambique, was embroiled in monetary and diplomatic disputes, after being deserted by the Russian who leased it. The ammonium nitrate was transferred to a dockside warehouse in Beirut, the place where it was left for years until the ammonium nitrate was set in a giant detonation and sending a shock wave that killed over hundred of individuals and wounded more than other 5,000. It was not a matter of if the explosive ammonium nitrate will blast or not but rather when it will do so.

Russian Federation and Georgia are among the top five countries by ammonium nitrate export in the world (https://www.google.se/amp/knoema.com/atlas/topics/Agriculture/Fertilizers-Export-Quantity-in-Nutrients/Ammonium-nitrate-export%3fmode=amp). The others are being Lithuania, Bulgaria, and the United States of America. There are many countries around the world that import ammonium nitrate. The production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3). Besides being an explosive material it is also used as fertilizer as it is rich in nitrogen, its use as fertilizer is needed because of the ongoing degradation of soil quality worldwide. The sale of pure ammonium nitrate has been banned in countries such as Australia, Germany, Ireland, Pakistan and the United Kingdom where as India has reclassified it as explosive which has tightened regulation related to handling and storage (https://ihsmarkit.com/products/ammonium-nitrate-chemical-economics-handbook.html). There are cases of international disputes over the trade of ammonium nitrates, e.g. Russian Federation and Ukraine (https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news15_e/ds493rfc_08may15_e.htm).

The catastrophic giant detonation of ammonium nitrate and massive destruction of Beirut, Lebanon (https://youtu.be/o0I7Qg3_yLc) calls the global community and in particular the UN, WTO and UN-FAO to have a close look on the global trade rules of ammonium nitrate by being an explosives and a fertilizer. These are key issues for promoting and achieving the UN SDGs.

The giant detonation which left much of Beirut in ruins.

UN, Ban Ki Moon and António Guterres For the Nobel Prize in Peace

Without the UN there neither be any Paris Agreement (https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement) nor any UN-SDGs (https://www.globalgoals.org). These two major milestones of the UN are without hesitation remarkable achievements that were concluded during the mandate period (17 January 2004 – 1 December 2006) of Ban Ki Moon (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ban_Ki-moon) as the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations General Assembly. The Paris Agreement and the UN-SDGs give guides to all of us, governments, businesses, civil society and the general public to work together to build a better future for everyone. These achievements have created a new ideology that makes all, and everyone of us, feels as responsible and accountable global citizen advocating the collective needs to preserve and protect the Global Collective Goods (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_good_(economics)). Such Goods are by definition both non-excludable (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excludability) and non-rivalrous (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivalry_(economics)) in that individuals cannot be excluded from use or could benefit from without paying for it. The use of such Goods by one individual does not reduce availability to others and can be used simultaneously by more than one person. Following the logic of the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee to gave the Peace Prize to Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei (https://sv.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohamed_ElBaradei) and the UN-IAEA) in year 2004 (https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/2005/prize-announcement/) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy then it is the time to take full step towards prosperous use of the planet resources. This is including human resources, for the sake of promoting life quality of the global citizens, also all forms of life at least for our existential survival. Globalisation is a fact and we can’t turn out time-machine to go in backwards or still to treat the global citizens in “business-as-usual” where discrimination is becoming a rule rather than an exception. The atmosphere and the hydrosphere are Global Collective Goods as they don’t follow political and/or geographical boarders, both are driven by the neat relations between the Sun and the Earth. Education is also among Global Collective Goods and needs to be reshaped along these lines (https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000232555). COVID-19 has clearly demonstrated the needs to redefine our policies in many sectors specially in education. Bold steps (https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/08/1069442) need to be taken on national and international levels to save the future of the coming generations which is definitely the future of planet Earth also. Small nations and countries can’t by their own limited resources cope with global pandemics such as COVID-18 or disasters such as the catastrophic destruction of Beriut (https://youtu.be/o0I7Qg3_yLc). The Iraq War (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq_War) was a result of wrong assumptions and had a major role in further destabilization of the MENA region with millions of refugees and lost generations. Following the Iraq War the Nobel Prize was given to former president of the US Barack Obama (https://sv.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama) which later on caused twist in the US policies with president Donald Trump (https://sv.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump) that withdrew from the Paris Agreement, UN-SDGs and WHO activities all together. The Norwegian Nobel Committee for the Peace Prize has so far stayed passive in this context.

In a globalized world we are living in constant socio-economic shifts that actively promote and depend on out-sourcing and mobility of labor, there must be appropriate policies for transparency and accountability as human intelligence is becoming more and more Global Collective Goods.

ESG Sustainability Factors – Godfrey Mchunguzi Oyema

Sustain-Earth.Com is introducing an ESG (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental,_social_and_corporate_governance) Fund-Raising team where Mr. Godfrey Mchunguzi Oyema, Tanzania, is excellent addition to sustain-earth.com. Mr. Godfrey Mchunguzi Oyema is a passionate and results-driven Environmentalist, Biodiversity (Wildlife) and Human Ecologist, ESG policy professional with understanding of the challenges facing biodiversity both in-situ and ex-situ conservation. His work involves analytical approaches to using observation strategies to predict and monitor behavior changes of animals in captivity and natural habitats. He has diverse and rich knowledge of managing animals in captivity using a variety of methods, as well as camera traps and behavior monitoring. His expertise is based on smooth business operations by collaborating with project partners and following projects from conceptualizing phase to completion including theory of change design, incorporation of partner needs and technical support.

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) are three central factors in measuring sustainability dimensions and the societal impact of investments in companies. The social and environmental responsibility affects financial and economic performance in private and public sectors. The social capital is an important factor in establishing strong human capital and so is the case of the underlying environmental conditions of social frameworks. These are important in encouraging companies and capital markets to incorporate environmental and social challenges into their day-to-day decision-making.

ESG had also received most of the public and media attention, not least because of the growing fears concerning climate change which directed the spotlight more and more onto the corporate governance aspect of responsible investment. It brought also the focus to how the companies were managed, what the stockholder relationships were and how the employees were treated. The evidence toward a relationship between ESG issues and financial performance is becoming greater with wider recognition of the necessity of the sustainability in long-term investments. The environmental social and corporate governance are becoming increasingly important in the investment markets https://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/environmental-social-and-governance-esg-criteria.asp).

Public goods are natural resource enjoyed by every person and it is impossible to prevent someone, including living organisms, consuming such good, e.g. air for breathing, water for drinking, sun and light to enjoy. Public goods are recognized as beneficial for everyone and therefore have existential values and necessities that must not be destroyed by one person or state. In this context, natural resources and the environment are global public goods that are should not be diminished, exhausted and/or degraded, e.g. a breathable atmosphere, stable climate and biodiversity. For these reasons Environmental Governance (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_governance) is also a political ecology and environmental policy concepts that advocates sustainability for management of all human activities. Governance includes government, business and civil society.

Sustain-Earth.Com will expand on ESG and its growing importance for promoting and achieving the UN-SDGs (https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030.html).

Africa’s Future Gold Mine – Renewable Energy Future Opportunities and Needs

Africa has enormous untapped resources of renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy and hydro-power (https://www.renewablesinafrica.com).

Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern production of renewable in Africa. Renewables in Africa are future strong enablers and drivers for sustainable developments with enormous socio-economic-environment benefits. Renewables in Africa will help to achieve its vision for Green Growth (https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/downloads/resource/African%20Development%20Report%202012_4.pdf). In Brazil, for example, bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and renewables, e.g. bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337098/). If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. However, what regards bioenergy which is so far a major resource of energy in Africa, researchers warn about its negative climate impacts and a brake on bioenergy by 2050 is suggested. This will alleviate the extreme pressures on land in the coming 30 years and avoid the negative impacts from high carbon footprint and excessive land use biomass production from crops, trees or grasses for fuel through 2100 (https://www.google.se/amp/s/phys.org/news/2019-12-bioenergy-negative-climate-impacts.amp).

Here we illustrate an excellent example of renewables from one of the African pioneers in Geothermal power generation in East Africa and the Rift Valley (https://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml). The geology, evolution and landscape of the Rift Valley (https://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml) in Africa makes it a unique resource and an example of the untapped renewable energy resources. Working opportunities in the energy market in Africa would open huge employment possibilities for technical engineers, including ICT.

DM and CEO of KenGen Rebecca Miano, Kenya, gives us a glimpse on the future of Renewables in Africa (https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=XOreOpeqQ4o&feature=youtu.be). KenGen as a global pioneer in geothermal energy in Africa and the world, it has access also to affordable inhouse expertise to meet crises such as COVID-19. However, demand in energy for expansion and modernization of power plants are enormous and would need more and more technical skills.

Africa’s Sustainability – Hydro-Power and Energy-Water-Food Nexus

Why do we need Energy? Why do we need Water? Why do we need Food? and How these three basic needs are related to the Earth’s Natural Capital Resources. For Africa where its population will peak to reach about 40% of the world population by the end of this century including housing the youngest population on planet Earth, it is IMPERATIVE to know how this wicked “Water-Energy-Food-Natural Resources” Nexus will be managed. With the huge and growing global pressure on Africa’s mineral/natural resources and with the other given needs in mind, how can we define Africa’s Livelihood on the bases of achieving the UN-SDGs?

The new dams in Africa have the potential to meet increased energy (electricity) demands. At the same time, there are strong coupling between climate and the “water, energy and food” in Africa. Also strong links with the global needs for Africa’s natural resources. On the large-scale and long-terms spatio-temporal changes, locations of the planned dams could put the security of electricity supply at risk for large parts of Africa. As the majority of planned dams are located in river basins with upstream and downstream regions that rely on similar patterns of rainfall and hence be vulnerable all together to drought and dry years. Also, subject to other extreme climate and weather threats caused by major changes in rainfall pattern such as uncontrolled flooding. These vulnerabilities could lead to electricity supply being disrupted. This is why it’s important to factor climate variability and change into dam design and management, and diversify the electricity production, to avoid over reliance on hydropower.

Hydropower relies on the flow of water to drive turbines for electricity generation. It uses natural changes in elevation or artificial storage in reservoirs to take advantage of the water level difference. Drought or successive dry years can result in not having enough water to drive the generating turbines and thus cause shortage of electricity. In countries like the US and in parts of western Europe hydropower is complimented by other power sources. This means that in times of drought other sources of power can balance the shortfall. But in countries where the energy mix is or will be dominated by hydropower as in e.g. Africa specially the sub-Saharan African countries. Without alternative power sources, the impacts of climate can cause fluctuations in hydropower and thus can disrupt electricity supply. Supply might need to be turned off either to ration dwindling water resources or because demand simply can’t be met. For example, the Nile and Zambezi, where multiple dams are planned on the same river channels and lie in the same rainfall clusters. This means that dry years will affect storage in all the dams, lessen their ability to refill fully and could create a significant challenge for the supply of hydropower. There are already examples of this happening (http://theconversation.com/new-dams-in-africa-could-add-risk-to-power-supplies-down-the-line-89789). In December 2017, for example, Malawi’s state owned electricity company saw power output plummeting after a severe drought. Malawi relies almost entirely on hydropower and during the 2015–16 El Niño event, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe all experienced electricity outages due in part to reduced rainfall. Climate risks must be built into planning, this is particularly true in many of Africa’s river basins because they are highly sensitive to changes in rainfall. The increasing importance of hydropower and the potential for increasing levels of rainfall variability under climate change, underscore the need to incorporate climate risks into infrastructure planning in Africa.

There is no question the planned increase in hydroelectricity generation in Africa presents both significant opportunities and also challenges. It will assist the economic development of the continent, as greater electrification will drive industrialisation and support the creation of more secondary and tertiary industries. All these come with several socio-economic opportunities. Also, increase in water storage capacity will assist the agro-industry, by reducing its reliance on rainfed agriculture. However, an over reliance on dams could threaten food, water and energy security during times of drought, and would present challenges to a wide-range of communities that rely on the natural flow of water in rivers. Also, the boom of industrial and household activities around centralized power-stations and artificial water reservoirs can cause local and regional degradation in air and water qualities if strict rules and regulations for emissions and/or injections of pollutants are not properly put in place. These emerging threats and challenges need to be assessed with the water-energy-food nexus and life-quality in mind. If African countries seek to harness the wide benefits that their rivers provide, they must also learn from previous mistakes, minimise and mitigate the negative effects of the ongoing dam building.

The number of challenges that Africa presents in terms of energy-water-food nexus and life-quality are significant. As such nexus has also several feedback impacts on eco-system services and bio-diversity. Furthermore, the lack of adequate management of available water resources is contributing to an existing and accelerating water crisis in the African continent. Changes in climatic patterns are also expected to have impacts on crop yields, which in combination with population growth will lead to severe additional stress on water resources that otherwise would have to be dedicated to increase agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, future water needs from the growing African energy sector may play a key role when combined with changes in water availablity and the future increasing demands from agriculture. A proper analysis of the water requirements of the African energy sector is important for an effective future planning and management of water, energy and food resources in Africa.

This said, an important and interesting issue is the impacts of water needs for energy use and production on the natural water cycle on local and regional scales in Africa, also probably on the global scale because of evaporation from an increasing number of artificial reservoirs behind the planned hydropower dams in the arid and semi-arid regions in Africa.

At this stage we give only one example on the ongoing plans in Ethiopia for hydropower production. However, sustain-earth.com will continue in detailing the what, why and how issues in the “water-energy-food nexus” in Africa. Follow the story here (https://youtu.be/NbKoXlYUNY0).

MUST SEE – Life, People and the Mystery of Blue Nile.

Let us see first what the Blue Nile means for the people sharing it. Water carried life and has deep roots wherever it exist, these roots are so powerful that can’t be ignored in any agreement. It is not only water and energy that the Blue Nile carried with it. The mystery of the Nile and the cultural issues of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt is a mesmerizing documentary that MUST BE SEEN. It is the best documentary for any one who is interested in the Nile River.

On Editorial Board – Prof. Mohamed Shakal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

It is a great pleasure to announce that Professor Mohamed Shakal has joined the Editorial Board @sustain-earth.com.


Professor MOHAMED SHAKAL is the Deputy Head and the Scientific Coordinator of the Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Previous activities:

– AUGUST 2005-AUGUST 2008: Consultant for Ministry of Higher Education, Egypt.
– MARCH 2001-APRIL 2004: Cultural Attache, Embassy of Egypt in Berlin (Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland).
– NOVEMBER 2000 TILL NOW:Professor at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo Univ.

ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS:


– 1982-1986 B.Sc. and M.Sc. Veterinary Science, Cairo University, Egypt.
– 1989 Ph.D. Poultry Diseases, Ludwig Maximilians University, MÜNCHEN; GERMANY.
– 1993/94 Post.doc. Avian and Tumor Viruses, Dept. of Virology, Central Veterinary Inst. Lelystad, The Netherlands.
– 1995 University Staff at Institute of Sociocultural Studies, University of Kassel, Germany. Studies on Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Planning; Evaluation& Monitoring of University Programmes; Organizational Development; Research Management; Curriculum Development; Teaching Evaluation; Fund Raising …, etc RAISING…etc
– 1999 Post.doc. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., MÜNCHEN; GERMANY.

KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGES:


– ARABIC: MOTHER TONGUE. – ENGLISH: WORKING KNOWLEDGE ( FLUENTLY ).
– GERMAN: WORKING KNOWLEDGE ( FLUENTLY )

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS:

  • BOARD MEMBER OF THE EGYPTIAN BRANCH OF THE NETHERLANDS UNIVERSITIES ALUMUNI.
  • BOARD MEMBER OF THE EGYPTIAN BRANCH OF THE GERMAN UNIVERSITIES ALUMUNI.
  • BOARD MEMBER OF THE EGYPTIAN BRANCH OF THE WORLD VETERINARY POULTRY ASSOCIATION.
  • MEMBER OF THE EUROPEN ASSOCIATION OF THE VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC LABORATERIES.

For list of publications of Prof. Mohamed Shakal see https://scholar.cu.edu.eg/?q=shakal/biocv

Smallstarter | Everything You Need To Start, Build & Grow A Business in Africa – Smallstarter Africa

For several reasons Africa will be the most expanding market in the 21st century with an extraordinary and fast expansion of businesses. It has the world youngest population and by the end of this century about 40% of the world population will be in Africa. It has the world largest arable land and the future food basket of the world. It is by far one of the world richest in natural resources including solar energy and many untapped potential of its huge natural eco-systems and wildlife biodiversity.

Here is one of the best free on-line courses for Smallstarter with well-summarized information on Everything You Need To Start, Build and Grow A Business in Africa. It is for Smallstarters in and for Africa www.smallstarter.com/

On Editorial Board – Dr. Hussein Abaza, Senior Advisor, Minister of Environment, Egypt

We warmly welcome Dr. Hussein Abaza to join the Editorial Board @sustain-earth.com. Hussein Abaza completed undergraduate studies in Economics at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) and postgraduate studies in Urban Housing Planning at the Bradford University in the UK.

Dr. Hussein Abaza is currently the Senior Advisor to the Egyptian Minister of Environment. Prior to holding this position he has worked for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) from 1982 upto 2009. During his tenure with UNEP he was responsible for formulating and overseeing the implementation of the UNEP Economics and Trade Programme, led the team which conceptualized and launched the UNEP Green Economy initiative in October 2008, and functioned as the Special Assistant to the Executive Director of UNEP. Positions while at UNEP also included Chief of the Economic and Trade Branch, Coordinator of the Committee of International Development institutions on the Envrionment (CIDIE), and Coordinator of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN).

Founded the Centre for Sustainable Development Solutions (CSDS) in 2011 with the main objectives of promoting green economy and sustainable development, with particular focus on Egypt and the Middle East. The Centre aims at achieving its objectives through technical support, research, training, community based activities, and public awareness campaigns. As an Advisor to the Minister of Planning, Follow-up and Administrative Reform and Head of the Sustainable Development Team launched in 2018 a process for revising and updating the 2030 Sustainable Development Strategy for Egypt. Prior to joining UNEP, functioned as Chief Executive Officer of the United Nations Physical and Urban Planning project in Saudi Arabia, Managing Director of the Center of Planning and Architecture in Cairo, Egypt, and Director of the Islamic Investment company, Central and Northern Region, Saudi Arabia. Apart from functioning as the Senior Advisor to the Egyptian Minister of Environment, he is currently a Fellow of the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology and a member of the Environment Council of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture.

During the course of his professional career he provided technical assistance and supported country projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Projects aimed at strengthening national capacities to conduct integrated assessment as a tool to integrate environment and social considerations in macroeconomic and secotral policies, develop a package of policy measures, including economic instruments for implementing mutually supportive environmental, social, and economic policies. He also participated and delivered keynote statements and attended a series of national, regional and international workshops and events on sustainable development and “Green Economy”. Meetings and workshops were convened in Abu Dhabi, Amman, Beirut, Florence, Hamburg, Islamabad, Marrakech, Rabat, Qatar, and Tunisia.

During his long and extensive professional life he worked as a consultant/advisor for a number of international organizations, including the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Economic Commission for Western Asia (UNESCWA), the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the European Union (EU), Plan Blue, the Union for the Mediterranean (UFM), the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED), the Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE), and the German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ), SWEEP-Net, SWITCH-Med programme, and the League of Arab States. He prepared and contributed to a series of publications on environmental and integrated assessment, the interface between trade and environment, valuation of environmental and natural resources, the use of economic instruments for environmental management, and the Green Economy for the Arab Region, and manuals on sustainable development, integrated policy making, environmental assessment, green economy, environmental economics, and trade and environment.

How would the Gulf countries help joining the transformation towards green economy? https://youtu.be/uBFb0pVyNZM