Category: Pages & Noteboard

This BLOG “sustain-earth” is an In-clusive, Inter-active, Inter-disciplinary and Inter-sectorial platform to implement “Sustainability and Applied Sustainability” in all sectors, on all levels and anywhere. It is, also, a market-oriented platform for transforming “Sustainability and Applied Sustainability”, from individual, narrow and fragmented understanding to a holistic and applied prospective. The search of man for secured living confronted with fundamental life processes on earth and resulted in major threats endangering the land-water resources and the very survival of life.

The “BLOG” is constructed in two parts: Part (1) is a “theoretical and knowledge-based one”; and Part (2) is a “practical and applied one”. Both parts are inter-related and supplement each other where Part (1) “Categories, posts & Discussions” explains the theoretical background upon which Part (2) “Pages & Note-board” is based. Both parts are spanning over all national sectors (private, public and governmental) and involve, also, inter-governmental organizations and relevant international bodies. Furthermore, the structure and built-in dynamics of the “BLOG” seek the integration of individuals, groups, companies, organizations, communities, societies, ….. etc. on both horizontal and vertical levels. The motivation, goal and vision are to bring about coherent sustainable systems through linking together all building blocks. Sustainability, i.e. concepts and knowledge therein, is being explained in Part (1) while Part (2) is devoted to more Applied and practical issues for production, communication and services.

Through its Editorial Board and Guest Bloggers and contact points, the BLOG is acting as “Open Access” instrument for coupling education and research with market and society needs, and thereby supporting professionals, including young ones, for creating, improving and up-dating “Career Development Plans” to suit an ever dynamic and changeable labor market. It is an instrument for enhancing public awareness, promoting capacity building as well as for supporting the development and management of human resources and infra-structures for quality services in public and private sectors.

Education, R&D and Public Awareness are Imperative for Sustainable Policies 

Understanding existing pressures and constrains for implementation and performance of successful sustainable policies requires tight and continuous involvement of all citizens on large-scale and long-term socio-economic policies. 

Planet Earth is a complex living organism with delicate balance that makes possible the unique functioning and metabolism of all life forms on earth. Water, energy and natural resources are essential and basic components that contribute in the earth’s delicate balance. Modern neccessities and future challenges are becoming more and more clear and require from us and future generations to keep such balance in tact with nature’s own dynamic processes. Our consumption of water, energy and natural resources needs to take in consideration the nature’s own delicate balance. 

Visit, share and contribute in “” to inform and be informed on our growing needs for understanding the basic of APPLIED SUSTAINABILITY. An introduction is given at ABOUT (


Who should govern the Water? Policies or Politics

“Listen well, it is never in our interest to control and eliminate the illegal drilling because such actions can irritate our voters leading to lose any future election” Said a tribal Shaikh from Bani Hushaish, Yemeni Parliament Member.

Wherever you go with your eyes… here or there, to the north or south, east or west of the earth you will find the water issues are managed through a set of technical, social, economic, political…etc. tools. However, this does not mean that it is a same recipe of tools or solutions applicable for every country, region, area…etc. nor all countries adopt and apply all or some of these tools when managing their water resources and uses. What is quite sure is the adoption and application extent varies from country to country based on countries demand, consciousness, will, commitment and capabilities in applying the integrated concept when managing the water resources.

Water strategies and action plans are usually long term frameworks and actions that adopt and implement various water management tools and policies. Water policies are a sectorial tool to overall orient and manage the various water issues through the implemented water strategies and action plans. Given as an example, in the soccer game the decisions on team formulation, attack and defense tactics, player’s replacement…etc. are considered as the game strategy and or plans. On the other hand, rules that specify the playing ground area, game time, number of players, fouls and penalties kicks away of implementation…etc. are considered as the game policies. Similarly, the water strategies are long term strategic plans that determine goals, objectives, approaches, measures and interventions, main players, cross cutting issues, implementing issues…etc. that should be followed and implemented, while the water policies are simply a set of general rules and frameworks that orient, adjust, and determine the implementation of the water strategies and action plans. For instance, banning the importing or exporting of a specific crop that consumes high amount of water is considered as a water policy that can affect the water situation in a country while covering an irrigated area of one hundred thousand hectare with modern irrigation systems can be considered as strategic action that can be implemented during long period of time.

Politics is a state/regime measurements and actions that contribute to the establishment and implementation of both policies and strategies in all development and governing sectors including the water sector. Politics has significant and critical impacts on the on the water policies and strategies determining the effectiveness and efficiency of respective interventions implementation and the ultimate improvements in the water situation. On the other hand, the political systems and elites can also be affected by the way water issues are handled when implementing the adopted water policies and strategies. The effect level itself, however, depends mainly on to the extent the water users in particular and citizens in general are aware of their water interests, and able to move and put pressure on the political elites in order to manage the water resources efficiently, as well as the politicians consciousness about the importance the proper water management policies and strategies. Given as a live example, the German Green Political Party has succeeded to win more seats in the region parliamentarian election in some south and north regions like the Hessen Region in spite of being classified among the small political parties in Germany. Such success was due to the smartness of the party leadership in putting the environmental issues on the top of the party agenda giving the fact that people in those regions are highly aware and concerned of their environmental issues.

Without going that far, here in Yemen many contradictions between the water management policies and other governing politics existed representing a very interesting case full of vague and questionable decisions undertaken on many water. For instance, why did Yemeni Government and the former regime choose to excessively support the agriculture expansion during the last three decades although agriculture has insignificant contribution in the national GDP????!!!

Why did Yemen issue an official decree to ban the import of fruits and vegetables in the 1980s although it has critical adverse impacts on the groundwater in many water basins in Yemen????!!!!

Was it a sheer coincidence that the state politics hurried wildly establishing hundreds of casual dams out of which many were just awarded as gifts by the former president Ali Saleh to the tribes Shaikhs????!!! According to the National Water Strategy (NWSSIP), the total number of constructed dams reached 1000 dams in 2004. Excluding Marib Dam, the annual amount of water such numerous constructed dams could store does not exceed one third of the annual ground water abstracted from Sana’a Basin. Nevertheless, many soci, economic, and environmental adverse impacts have induced by such casualty of dams’ construction. Further, what is the rationality to go with dams’ construction option in a country that has an average of 200mm/year of rainfall and 2300mm/year of potential evaporation rate…!

Another inquiry, why did the government encourage Yemeni farmers to import drilling rigs and big pumps even without paying any type of customs or taxes for a long period of time???!!! Why has the government subsidized the diesel prices during that period as well???!!! Some may justify the taken politics mentioned above as to afford the country food security. However, as everybody knows that although all unpremeditated political measurements are applied, Yemen did not reach the delusive food security the former regime has publicized; nonetheless, we annually pump more than 40% of our finite and vulnerable groundwater to irrigate Qat crops which is neither considered a kind of food nor provides hard currencies that can be used to import food…!!! Others might justify it as to obtain development, stability and wealth for rural communities, and eliminate the increasing rates of internal migration from the countryside to the urban cities which maximizes the pressure on the public services such as water supply and sanitation, roads, schools, hospitals…etc. in the urban areas. However, statistics show that internal migration rates from rural to urban areas has increased annually till it reached up to 7% in the capital city of Sana’a which became amongst the top ten cities with highest population growth worldwide. On the other hand, rural economy that has relatively improved in some basins due to the agriculture leap induced during the 1980s was just a temporary delusive improvement. For instance, economic returns of agriculture attained by depleting huge amounts of fossil groundwater in many basins were spent either on building Luxurious houses or on travelling to some Arab countries for health treatment or tourism which ultimately didn’t provide any alternative economic activity that can secure a sustainable income for the rural communities once the groundwater is totally depleted. Is it right to assume that the politics and interests of the Yemeni politicians were and might still aiming to keep the majority of the Yemeni people busy with their farming business and away from the political game and ruling system? Who knows?

Another example, why Yemeni state still fails to control some hundreds of rigs that drill thousands of illegal wells annually???!!! Is it difficult for the respective security and local authorities to follow and control them everywhere? If so, why didn’t they hold the rigs when passing by the numerous security checkpoints exist elsewhere? Or why the drilling rigs were not hold even earlier when imported and entered through the national border ports where the state has a full controlling power and authority???!!! Are those hundreds of rigs owners more powerful than the Yemeni state??? If so, what kind of power do they have so that the government is disabled to control them???!!!

The simple and obvious factor is again the regime politics and interest that do not match with the water management policies as expressed by a Shaikh from Bani Hushaish, who was elected among the Moatammar Party elites in the national parliament in 2003. When I and another colleague from NWRA Sana’a Branch had admonished him for not cooperating in eliminating the illegal wells drilling in Bani Hushaish District, the Shaikh explicitly responded to us “Listen well, frankly it is never in our interest to control and eliminate the illegal drilling because such actions can infuriate our voters leading us to lose any further election in the future”. If so, it is clearly understood, why the symphony of the illegal wells drilling is still playing till this moment.

Now, if this is the opinion and intendancy of parliament members, it is not then surprising to conclude that all unjustified erroneous politics were not taken by the former regime for the purpose of rural communities’ development and national economy promotion as announced, yet it was just to satisfy the wide base of electors who live in the rural areas so they continue to support and elect the former regime elites in every election. On the other hand, as forth assumed it was also to keep the major base of voters away from the political game and country ruling system and process by keeping them busy with delusive unsustainable agricultural development and ensuring the political stability of the ruling regime; meanwhile, ignoring the critical and non-compensational costs and values such as the vanished groundwater resources that is still vulnerable for high depletion rates on the medium and long term periods. If it wasn’t the case, why the former regime didn’t follow and adopt right tools, policies and interventions for much more realistic and sustainable water management and national economy development???? Why was the former regime highly reluctant to support proper effective and efficient water management actions and interventions rather than the limited timely fictional measurements although the respective knowledge and experiences were available at that time?

Now, what are the results? Did the former succeeded to last as it had planned? Absolutely, no. Was the propaganda-based agricultural and economic development attained? It is never happened. Could the former politics of the state sustain our finite and vulnerable groundwater resources? Regrettably, they could not. The final question now on the today regime, government, political parties and elites, can they draw and learn some lessons of the past? Can they get rid of the personal and or political interest when managing the country different development issues including water? They should answer it yet not me or you dearest readers!

Last but not least, all of us as citizens of this lovely country before being politicians or voters, water users or managers have to consider and learn from the past, act with more comprehensive and integrated insights, and start adopting realistic proper and integrated water resources planning and management policies, tools, and interventions that ensure the public interest of Yemen at first and 25 million Yemenis soci and economic sustainable development at second.

,,,Allah bless and mercy Yemen and Yemenis

Best Regards

MSc. Abdulkhaleq Q. Alwan

IWRM Principle Advisor at MWE

Author name: Abdulkhaleq Alwan
Speciality and expertise: IWRM
Sector/Affiliation: Water Sector
Adress: Khawlan St, Sanaa – Yemen
Mobile: +967777148875
Type of contribution: Article

Why Sustain-Earth.Com?

If you can not measure it, it does not exist and if you can measure it properly you would not be able to control it.

What is sustainability and how can we measure it, below are some information. To know more follow, share and contribute in: to know more


MENA – Climate Chellenges Of Groundwater Resources

Water management is becoming IMPERATIVE with the increasing concern about the effects and impacts of global warming. Many ancient civilizations, if not all, evolved and sustained around water resources by using intensive water-demanding irrigation techniques.

The MENA region which helped birth of earliest agricultural civilizations is now signaling one of the strongest warnings of its mortality. It lost huge amount of its water resources mostly because the groundwater pumped up and out of the region’s fragile aquifers for irrigation. Groundwater is/was being over-pumped, some massively so, at rates much higher than ability to recharge. Ongoing global warming poses further threats for additiknal severe decline in groundwater resources unless counter measures and mitigation actions can be done.

Egypt is heading Towards A New future – The New Cairo

Among the new plans for the socio-economic developments of Egypt a new capital “New Cairo” is planned to be established in region of the Red Sea so the pressure on the existing capital can be mitigated. Interesting enough the Red Sea region and Sinai, including the Suez Canal are becoming among the major changes and reforms in “Egypt the Future”.

To know more visit also,


Science and Society – Why Do We Need Science Festivals?

Many universities around the world need effective and continuous interaction with the society and the public both on national and international levels. Such interactions can take place in different forms and through various instruments. The society and the public needs science and technology as much as science and technology needs the society and the public. These needs are mutual and may be direct or indirect, short-term or long-term and mediation instruments are imperative for the best possible outcome for all players and stakeholders. Permanent and effective mediation instruments are not straightforward to develop especially in the developing countries.

Science festivals are important instrument for universities and research institutions to inform the society about the finding of, and needs for, research and technology, to address the value of their educational programmes in everyday life, to engagement communities in whatever takes place in the scientific laboratories, lecture halls and classrooms. Also, to stimulate coming generations and increasing the motivation of young people in schools as well as to foster modern traditions and transformation to better future. “Sustain-earth” discusses such issues for stronger coupling of science and technology to society, market and population needs.

Healthy Socio-Environments Are Essential For Sustainable Science and Technology

Advances in societies require sustainable conditions for science and technology both what regards the internal functioning and also the external interaction and egagement with the society. Science and technology can not operate on their own, i.e. separated and isolated from the society, to deliver the best value to the society. After all the role of science and technology is to effectively serve the society.

For the society as a whole the three pillars of sustainability have ( coexist on coherent and continuous basis and on all levels. Status of the environment and climate conditions as well as processes therein have to promote the conservation and protection of biodiversity and the natural resources. Meanwhile, economic conditions have to facilitate production, employment, income, wealth, markets, trade and technologies. The environment and economy sectors, and stakeholders therein, have to operate in socio-political conditions that serve and secure national and personal security, safety, justice, education, health care, the pursuit of science and the arts, and other functions in the civil society and the culture context.

Behind advances and progress in science and technology, i.e. scientific and technological breakthrough, their are enormous amount of effective infra-structures of well-organized labs, dense social city networks that integrate researchers and academics into commercial, trade, finance and market connections and policies for science and innovation. Science and technology doesn’t advance far if we don’t understand their dynamic behaviour, attitude and organisation. So, we should remember a basic truth that science and technology functions in a socio-economic context (

What regards science communication there are key issues that have to be addressed to bring together those involved in science communication and public engagement. Science and technology writing requires human elements, as when it comes to non-scientists reading and enjoying science has to be relevant to daily lives and a source of inspiration that bring more added-value to go on with people lives. Meanwhile, it is difficult for scientists and engineers to write on demand, appropriate environments, enough space of time and resources have to exist (


UU SciFest 2015 – Om Du Inte kan Komma till Universitetet, Då Får Universitetet Komma Till Dig.

Uppsala universitet grundades 1477, Nordens äldsta universitet, och har utvecklats till ett av Europas främsta lärosäten och rankas bland världens 100 främsta inom samtliga discipliner. Uppsala universitet har en rik internationell prägel och kännetecknas av ett traditionsrikt studentliv. Bland universitetets alumner återfinns 15 nobelpristagare, åtta regenter, 14 statsministrar och över 50 ledamöter av Svenska Akademin. Mer om Uppsala universitet finns på, för viktiga årtal i Uppsala universitets historia besök 

Uppsala universitet finns också på Facebook

Tack vara Uppsala universitet har Uppsala vuxit fram till Sveriges fjärde stad ( Den höga studenttätheten i Uppsala, dels från Uppsala universitet “UU”, dels från Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet “SLU” sätter stark prägel på det dagliga livet i Uppsala som stad.

Om du inte kan komma till universitetet, då får universitetet komma till dig. Det är en gammal sanning som säger “säg mig och jag glömmer. Lär mig och jag minns. Involvera mig och jag lär”. I mars, 19-21 mars, kan alla passa på och vara med på SciFest 2015 som Uppsala Universitet arrangerar. Temat i år är “livet och den senaste teknologin”, mer information finns på

“” strävar efter att koppla utbildning, vetenskap och teknologi till marknadens och samhällets behov genom kunskapsöverföring och lämpliga karriärutvecklingsplaner. Bloggen “sustain-earth” är interaktiv, tvärvetenskaplig och transsektoriell plattform för framjandet av hållbarhet på alla socio-ekonomiska nivåer.

SciFest 2015 at Uppsala University – Science Festivals For Nurturing Your Creativity Nature

The National Science Foundation and The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, USA support Science Festivals. This is, also, the case for many highly ranked universities and research institutes around the world. Science Festivals ( can draw large crowds and are more than parties under big tents. They last for several days up to even a couple of weeks with participation of students, staff, professionals and administrators from academia, public and private sectors. Events, programs and live demonstrations can pop up, sometimes even in unexpected places. It is about establishing science as part of local cultures, attracting the attention and participation of whole communities.

Science Festivals bring the public into direct interaction with scientists and engineers where gained experiences generate momentum for science engagement throughout the rest of the year. They also involve academia, professionals from different sector organizations and on all levels in public outreach and create more active engagement with science in the community. 

To increase your motivation and for art lovers please visit “Nurture your creative nature at

Uppsala University (Uppsala, Sweden) will have its SciFest 2015 in 19-21 March at “Fyrishov”, Uppsala, to know more about the activities and the program please visit

Clean and Crime Free Environment – How, Where and When?

Clean and crime free environment to all living creatures on our earth is a mission humanity. This mission is not only limited to science and politics. Active contributions of all of us, our awareness of existing realities and our continuous support for scientific and political efforts are IMPERATIVE for achieving sustainable socio-economic developments worldwide. We are sharing one planet for living and our lives are dependent on sharing clean air, water and food. To have clean and crime free environment, not only for us but also for the future generations, we need to have all the necessary instruments, actions and efforts for conservation and protection of our common natural resources on earth.

EdX – Free Interactive Online Classes and MOOCs from the world’s best universities

MIT “Massachusetts Institute of Technology” and Harvard University along with other world’s best universities offer FREE online classes and MOOCs. EdX initiative, which was launched May 2012, is offering highest quality courses, created by schools and partners who share joint commitment to excellence in teaching and learning, both online and in the classroom. Currently, there are 300+ courses in many areas of study, including biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, finance, electronics, engineering, food and nutrition, history, humanities, law, literature, math, medicine, music, philosophy, physics, science, statistics and more. These courses and MOOCs are available in English, Chinese, Mandarin, French, Hindi, Spanish, (Latin America). So far, x-Consortium involves 400+ faculty and staff teaching courses and discussing topics online where 100,000+ certificates were earned by edX students from around the world. As of 22 October 2014, more than three million users  joined over 300 courses online. EdX is a massive open online course (MOOC) provider and an online learning platform and differers from other MOOC platforms, such as Coursera and Udacity, in that it is nonprofit and runs on an open-source software platform.

Charter Members of Edx colleges and universities drive the edX vision and mission, including the founding members MIT and Harvard, along with the other leading global institutions of the x-Consortium. Member institutions are a carefully selected group of universities, NGOs, businesses and other high-profile quality course builders.

Check the web-site of Edx to find our the participating universities and institutes, available cources and classes and how to register and join On-line e-learning.

Technology and Innovation for Rural Sustainability

Appropriate and sustainable rural technologies are very rare as most of the global attention, driven by economical interests, is focused on urbanization. Such technologies are very poorly needed because of several reasons. They are, also, imperative for promoting successful long-term and large-scale sustainable urbanization. This is, even, essential in agricultural regions where rural communities are major parts of the national socio-economic structure, which is the case in many developing countries in particular Africa. This is at least necessary in the transition periods prior to large-scale and long-term transformation to urbanized societies where gradual, appropriate and sustainable integration of rural regions is necessary.

Urbanization has caused an accelerating drain of un-favored groups to mega and large cities ( The random and rapid expansion of urbanized regions has promoted an ever accelerating pile-up of slum-communities in many regions around the world ( which indeed is not sustainable both from the economic and environmental perspective.

Some parts of the problem are associated with the negative impacts from global education, research and technology driven-policies around the world by being supported by national and international institutes and organizations including the United Nations and World Bank. Management of research, education and development programs fails to involve people from the developing countries to contribute in solving problems and difficulties in their native countries or at least to find partners from the developed countries willing to participate in solving the enormous problems and difficulties in this respect.

Fortunately, the global community started to recognize such problems and to take steps and  efforts, though limited in extent, for achieving successful socio-economic development that is very much related to reducing poverty and the associated impacts of environment and climatic threats. An innovative example “Ecological System Designs for the Indigenous Community of Maruata, Michoacan, Mexico” is given here where researchers from the developing countries are demonstrating how to bring about successful ecological designs for living better, cheaper and ecologically sustainable.


World Largest Power Station – How Huge is Huge in River’s Technology?

The Three Gorges Dam represents the accumulated knowledge and know-how from all previous worldwide advances in dam technology including finding solutions for a wide-range of side effects apart from the main goal of generating power. It is the world’s largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW), a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. It has several innovations and integrated solutions. Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main turbines in the underground plant began production. The dam has 32 main turbines, each with a capacity of 700 MW,  and two other smaller generators (50 MW each), with total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW. The dam is intended, also, to increase the Yangtze River’s shipping capacity and reduce the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. A partial solution for problems associated with the transport of nutrients because of silting behind the dam is, also, taken in consideration. Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions.


For comparison with the largest twenty dams in the world a global and historical survey is summarized  in this document:

Published on 31 May 2013
Largest Dams in The World


How Amazing is Amazing? – The Most Amazing Lakes In The World

10. Dead Sea (Bordered with Jordan, Israel and Palestine), its water is 9.6 times saltier than the ocean. No macroscopic living things can thrive in it and the high salinity makes life impossible to form with the exception of a very few bacteria and fungi. Because of the high salt concentration, the buoyancy of the water is so strong that a person cannot swim underwater and will push the body to float. The sea is also believed to have therapeutic powers to cure certain skin diseases.

9. Lake Berryessa Glory Hole, California. It is very important not only a tourist attraction but more so, it generates hydroelectricity. What makes it amazing is the bell-mouth spillway “Glory Hole” which is the largest of its kind with a diameter of 72 feet, a vertical drop of 200 feet and shrinks down to 28 feet. Once the water level reaches the maximum level, the spillway becomes submerged and it swallows excess water at unbelievable rate of 48,800 cubic feet per second.

8. Crater Lake, Oregon. It is formed during the collapse of Mount Mazama 7,700 years ago, 2,148 feet deep. It is considered the deepest in the United States and 7th or 9th deepest lake in the world. There are no rivers or any other bodies of water connected to the lake. Because of this, the water in the lake is considered one of the purest because of the absence of pollutants. The water is very clear and it has a visibility of up to 43.3 meters.

7. Lake Baikal, Siberia. Lake Baikal is a rift lake formed through continental crust being pulled apart. It is the deepest lake in the world with a depth of 1,642 meters (5,387 ft). Underneath the lake floor there is 7 kilometer of sediments placing the rift floor some 8-11 kilometers below the surface. Americans and Russian scientists studied the sediments with detailed climactic records dating as far back as 250,000 years. One of the most ancient lakes, its age is 25-30 million years.

6. Abraham Lake, Alberta, Canada. It is man-made lake in Alberta Canada. It is really beautiful during summer but what make it amazing is the frozen bubbles found underneath the lake during the winter season. These frozen bubbles are actually methane gas that is produced when bacteria at the bottom of the lake decomposes organic matter like animals, plants, and trees that died and sank to the bottom.

5. Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines. It is a freshwater lake; it cradles the world’s smallest active decade volcano, the Taal volcano. The lake fills the Taal caldera which is a remnant and the spot where historical eruptions occurred dating back to 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Within the Main crater lake is also a small island known as the Vulcan point. At 40 meters, Vulcan point is the world’s largest island within a lake (Main crater lake) on an island (Volcano Island) within a lake (Taal Lake) within an island (Luzon Island). It is confusing but that what makes it amazing…

4. Five Flower Lake, China. The Five-flower lake is one of the most popular and most beautiful lake among the lakes found in the Jiuzhaigou National Park in China. It is renowned worldwide and thousands of tourists visit it everyday. It lies at the end of the Peacock River at a height of 2,472 meters above sea level and has a depth of 5 meters only. This shallow lake reflects multiple colors and definitely a great sight to feast your eyes with. The bottom of the lake is littered with ancient trunks of trees crisscrossed everywhere.

3. Spotted Lake in British Columbia, Canada. The most notable feature of the lake is the multi-colored spots that are very visible and prominent even when viewed from the highway. The lake contains the world’s highest concentration of different minerals most notably, magnesium sulfate, calcium and sodium sulfates. The lake evaporates and during summer only the minerals remain and they form natural walkways in between and around the spots. It is also therapeutic and known to cure diseases. Fences preventing direct access protect the lake.

2.Lake Hillier (Pink lake) in Western Australia. It is famous for its pink color. It is really amazing in that it’s color is not derived from beta-carotene released by an algae when light penetrates the water; which is actually the case for Lake Retba in Africa and the Pink lake in Western Australia. These two lakes derive its color from the red pigment being produced by Dunaliella Salina and Halobacteria that use sunlight to create more energy. Unlike these two, the pink water of Lake Hillier is permanent even if water is taken from the lake and transferred to a different container.

1. Plitvice Lake in Croatia. It is inside the Plitvice National Park in Croatia, the largest national park in the country and the oldest in southeast Europe. It is considered the most beautiful lake worldwide because of it’s spectacular display of colors at different times of the day, at different angles of light and at different seasons. It was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage in 1979 among the First Sites worldwide. Every year, more than 1.2 million tourists from all over the world visit it. It is most famous for its 16 lakes arranged in cascades.

Best Beaches, Water Quality and Wellbeing – Information, Pictures and Criteria.

Water quality is central for wellbeing of humans or at least for protection of health and preservation of quality of all forms of life. Water resources are not only an economic and industrial resource and the uses of water don’t stop for indoor household activities. Indeed, the urbanization of water as forced by economic, industrial and indoor household activities is forcing an ever-accelerating promotion of “production and consumption”. On global long-term perspective, this is posing an ever increasing degradation of the quality of natural water resources with severe negative impacts on the quality of life not only what regards inland freshwater water bodies but, also, all maritime coastal and offshore waters. Conservation and protection of the global water resources is a global long-term investment for many generations to come.

“” will continue the describe the dimensions and threats of the ongoing urbanization of water resources where demonstrations will be given to the existing unlimited needs for taking in consideration the role of water for the wellbeing of humans in terms of health and recreation as well as conservation and protection of all forms of life on the planet.

Access and affordability of good water quality for recreation is among growing needs where the pressures and competition on water resources are enormous. Best Beaches in the world are very expessive and not easily accessible. Compact information and pictures of the world’s best beaches are given here in terms of criteria, weather, water, sand, facilities, access, visitor numbers, ….. etc :

We give few examples on efforts made for raising public awareness on the existing needs. The US “Guide to Finding a Clean Beach”: How to find out if a beach is tested for pollution and what authorities do if they find it; finding help online and at the local or state health departments; avoiding polluted beaches; ……. etc: “”. According to CNN 10% of water samples collected from U.S. beaches failed to meet the government benchmark for swimmer safety. It’s an icky thought, especially considering the popularity of several of the failing beaches included in the Natural Resources Defense Council’s “Testing the Waters”:

For the UK, find out how clean the water is on beaches, in other bathing in England and Wales, and if there is a problem with pollution: For Canada, Toronto has some of the best beaches in the world, this is verified by the Blue Flag Program. This internationally recognized program awards “blue flags” is directed to communities committed to maintaining high standards for water quality:

Urbanization and Future Impacts of Water Treatment on Natural Waters

Without proper water treatment healthy life in out cities wouldn’t be possible. To further couple the importance of water treatment to other sectors in the society we need some background information. This is described at

Also, how drinking water is made and how water treatment plants function is explained in:

With this background information and with the expected prognoses that 70% of world population will be gradually moving to cities during the twenty first century it is not clear how water treatment plant would cope with the increasing waste that is generated from human consumption, i.e. household, agriculture and industry. Unlike solid waste, which is subject to sorting in some parts of the world, wasted water from urbanized areas carry an increasing number and amounts of pollutants in their end products, i.e. effluents and sludge. Though water treatment plants may be effective to provide good quality of water, wastewater treatment plants however are not as effective in removing whatever exist in wastewater. This means that the net effect of urbanization is an increasing production and injection of waste and pollution that is delivered to natural aquatic water systems. This would, of course, provide large-scale and long-term threats on ecological water, and life quality, and will have negative feedback effects on “raw” water that will be later used in water treatment plants.

In summary we have an accelerating internal urbanization of water that generates waste and pollution as end products to be injected and delivered to the main natural global water cycle.