Appropriate and sustainable rural technologies are very rare as most of the global attention, driven by economical interests, is focused on urbanization. Such technologies are very poorly needed because of several reasons. They are, also, imperative for promoting successful long-term and large-scale sustainable urbanization. This is, even, essential in agricultural regions where rural communities are major parts of the national socio-economic structure, which is the case in many developing countries in particular Africa. This is at least necessary in the transition periods prior to large-scale and long-term transformation to urbanized societies where gradual, appropriate and sustainable integration of rural regions is necessary.
Urbanization has caused an accelerating drain of un-favored groups to mega and large cities (http://www.academia.edu/847075/Mexico_City._The_marginal_communities_social_and_ethnic_segregation_of_the_native_population). The random and rapid expansion of urbanized regions has promoted an ever accelerating pile-up of slum-communities in many regions around the world (http://www.schooljotter.com/showpage.php?id=158173) which indeed is not sustainable both from the economic and environmental perspective.
Some parts of the problem are associated with the negative impacts from global education, research and technology driven-policies around the world by being supported by national and international institutes and organizations including the United Nations and World Bank. Management of research, education and development programs fails to involve people from the developing countries to contribute in solving problems and difficulties in their native countries or at least to find partners from the developed countries willing to participate in solving the enormous problems and difficulties in this respect.
Fortunately, the global community started to recognize such problems and to take steps and efforts, though limited in extent, for achieving successful socio-economic development that is very much related to reducing poverty and the associated impacts of environment and climatic threats. An innovative example “Ecological System Designs for the Indigenous Community of Maruata, Michoacan, Mexico” is given here where researchers from the developing countries are demonstrating how to bring about successful ecological designs for living better, cheaper and ecologically sustainable.
Without proper water treatment healthy life in out cities wouldn’t be possible. To further couple the importance of water treatment to other sectors in the society we need some background information. This is described at http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_treatment
Also, how drinking water is made and how water treatment plants function is explained in:
With this background information and with the expected prognoses that 70% of world population will be gradually moving to cities during the twenty first century it is not clear how water treatment plant would cope with the increasing waste that is generated from human consumption, i.e. household, agriculture and industry. Unlike solid waste, which is subject to sorting in some parts of the world, wasted water from urbanized areas carry an increasing number and amounts of pollutants in their end products, i.e. effluents and sludge. Though water treatment plants may be effective to provide good quality of water, wastewater treatment plants however are not as effective in removing whatever exist in wastewater. This means that the net effect of urbanization is an increasing production and injection of waste and pollution that is delivered to natural aquatic water systems. This would, of course, provide large-scale and long-term threats on ecological water, and life quality, and will have negative feedback effects on “raw” water that will be later used in water treatment plants.
In summary we have an accelerating internal urbanization of water that generates waste and pollution as end products to be injected and delivered to the main natural global water cycle.
Water harvesting is among important water management instruments and can take different forms. Artificial recharge of groundwater, as explained in “sembraragua.blogspot” by Professor em Rafael Fernández Rubio, plays a very important role for the availability of water resources for meeting the increasing demands on water resources especially in arid and semi-arid regions. It allows storage of excess surface water, mitigates evaporation losses and enhances the performance and functionality of aquifers in a number of ways, e.g. capacity, availability, security and quality of water resources. It can, also, add other environmental and water conservation benefits, through creation of pressure barriers.
Professor em Rafael Fernández Rubio, gives an interesting and full introduction the subject of Artificial Recharge including: Definitions and Objectives; Conditioning factors (characteristics of recharge water, characteristics of the receiving aquifer, hydro-climatological features, environmental characteristics of the environment, alternatives recharge facilities); Resetting Devices (surface devices, deep devices); Water Treatment by Recharge; Clogging System. Professor em Rafael Fernández Rubio ends by Bibliography of Interest for further reading. An additional feature of “sembraragua.blogspot” is that it provides supplementary translation from Spanish to other languages with varying qualities for languages other than European ones.
Professionals in all sectors and on all levels around the world are corner stones in shaping the future on our planet; they are, also, leaders that can direct its path. However, for our fellow citizens to be safe, secure and share their responsibility the conservation and sustainable management of our collective natural resources on the earth requires innovation, engagement, transparency and full participation in “serve and get served”. With these objectives we can turn past difficulties, existing obstacles and future threats to solutions, admittance and prosperity.
http://sustain-earth.com is a platform and a BLOG for integrating and marketing sustainability in education and research, and popularization of sustainability in science and technology. It supports “Open Access”. It has built-in functions and instruments for coupling education, research and technology with society, market and population needs on national and international levels. It, also, acts for promoting “Business-to-Business” and creating “Career-Development-Plans” for professionals and graduates in the emerging applications of sustainability and socio-economic developments. http://sustain-earth.com is an instruments and vehicle for developing and implementing applied sustainability in all sectors and on all levels.
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China’s need for energy to serve its citizens and industries will accelerate tenfold in the period 2000-2035, i.e. from 1TWh to 9.6 TWh. Until now the share of renewables in China’s energy mix is about 17% while the major part of its energy, about 80%, is provided through fossil coal.
China’s challenges are related to its relatively very young renewable programs, and that the regions of highest energy demands are not matching China’s geographic distribution of its renewable energy production. Another challenge for China is the integration of its regional grids to a more efficient and optimized grid especially with consideration to the additional emerging renewable energies and the associated needs for storage. With these challenges a clear energy saving policy is needed for integrating renewable energy into China’s system. This is not an overnight and easy task especially if sustainable policies have to be taken in consideration for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions which will remain to be one of the most serious difficulties for China not only from climatic view point but also from environmental and air quality prospective.
Follow the mega constructions in the Middle East region for the transformation to more a sustainable future where railways provide the most environment friendly and sustainable large-scale and long-term transportation system. Mr. Loay Ghazaleh, Advisor at the Undersecretary Offices, The Ministry of Works, Bahrain, describes in a comprehensive, pedagogic and innovative slideshow the ME “Middle East” Railway Development and PPP “Public Private Partnership” Financing Framework over the next ten years. A major shift in the transport sector of the Middle East with enormous investments that can bring about huge feedback advantages regarding mobility of goods and citizens.
ABSTRACT. The Middle East has allocated nearly $250bn to various railway projects over the next 10 years with ambitious plan to build around 67,000km of railway tracks throughout the region. The region has the opportunity to build the world’s most advanced passenger and freight transport systems. The presentation touches on all aspects of railway development and strategies in the region including different Public private Partnership (PPP) models and financing / funding advice to better develop rail projects as a sustainable means of transport.
The world is currently facing growing pressures for transformation to clean energy in order to mitigate the environmental and climatic impacts of traditional energy sources. For Canada transformation to clean energy is still a big challenge, however it represents a unique opportunity for traditional energy producers and clean energy producers to team-up. These players have to come-up with a coherent task with the government to assure further development of traditional sources of energy in environmentally responsible manner while at the same time start grow more quickly to clean electricity sector. Resolving these issues will make it possible to meet the challenges for the transition to clean energy.
Similar challenges for countries with high carbon dioxide emission per capita, also, exist around the world but not all the countries have the same possibilities and resources for full and quick transformation to clean energy because of necessary huge capital investments, access to the required high-tech infra-structure/expertise and above all the political will. However, countries with low carbon dioxide emissions per capita, e.g. in Africa and South America, have to implement policies and encourage promotion of clean energy production while building up their technology, industry and production sectors.
While there are no “standard maps” for achieving successful sustainable socio-economic developments everywhere in the world, yet we can learn from exiting strategies and solutions. Naturally, nations around the world have own conditions, structures, needs and may exist in different stages of development with complex internal and external political, economical and trade relations. Assessing the existing models and strategies helps formulating short and long-term roadmaps that are appropriate and suitable to the socio-economic needs and conditions. Successful socio-economic developments can’t be based on random actions and have to follow robust strategies emanating from effective, collective and coherent interactions between all sectors and on all levels. In this context, cloudy and conflicting interesting “within and between” nations can be major obstacles for achieving sustainable socio-economic developments.
An example on how to build national roadmaps for bring about successful socio-economic developments even under economic constrains is given here.
“http://ustain-earth.com” represents here the growing attention of Uganda’s political efforts for achieving sustainable socio-economic developments. “The Greens” or “Green Parties” are emerging in Africa, ROBINAH K. NANYUNJA, the President General of Uganda’s Green Party, and a Green MP Candidate for Kawempe North Constituency 2016 in Kampala Uganda, is addressing the needs for implementation of sustainability roadmaps where the green ideology puts environmental responsibility at the same level like other development sectors, means that it provides the necessary political will to curb environmental degradation, which is more often lacking with conventional governments.
ROBINAH K. NANYUNJA is now a Guest Blogger at sustain-earth.com.